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It is one of several very large landmasses on Earth. There are seven continents of earth. These are Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.

Continent

Percent of
total landmass

Percent of

total population

Most populous city (proper)

Asia

29.5%

60%

Shanghai, China

Africa

20.4%

15%

Lagos, Nigeria

North America

16.5%

8%

Mexico City, Mexico

South America

12.0%

6%

Sao Paulo, Brazil

Antarctica

9.2%

0%

McMurdo Station

Europe

6.8%

11%

Moscow, Russia

Australia

5.9%

0.4%

Sydney, Australia

CONTINENTS OF THE WORLD 

 

Continents

(by size)

Continents

(by population)

Continents

(no. of countries)

Asia

Asia

Africa

Africa

Africa

Europe

North America

Europe

Asia

South America

North America

North America

Antarctica

South America

Australia

Europe

Australia

South America

Australia

Antarctica

Antarctica

 

HIGHEST AND LOWEST POINTS OF THE WORLD

 

Continent

Highest

Point (HP)

Elevation (m)

Country or territory of HP

Lowest

Point (LP)

Elevation (m)

Country or territory of LP

Asia

Mount Everest

8,848

China & Nepal

Dead Sea

-422

Israel, Jordan & Palestine

South America

Aconcagua

6,960

Argentina

Laguna del Carbon

-105

Argentina

North America

Mount McKinley

6,198

United States

Death Valley

-86

United States

Africa

Mount Kilimanjaro

5,895

Tanzania

Lake Assal

-155

Djibouti

Europe

Mount Elbrus

5,642

Russia

Caspian Sea

-28

Russia

Antarctica

Vinson Massif

4,892

British Antarctic Territory

Deep Lake,

Vestfold Hills

-50

Australian Antarctic Territory

Australia

Puncak Jaya

4,884

Indonesia

(Papua)

Lake Eyre

-15

Australia

Variations of Continents

 

Supercontinents

Supercontinents, largely in evidence earlier in the geological record, are landmasses that comprise more than one craton or continental core. These have included Laurasia, Gondwana, Vaalbara, Kenorland, Columbia, Rodinia, and Pangaea.

Subcontinents

Certain parts of continents are recognized as subcontinents, particularly those on different tectonic plates from the rest of the continent. The most notable examples are the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Peninsula.

Greenland, generally reckoned as the world’s largest island on the northeastern periphery of the North American Plate, is sometimes referred to as a subcontinent.

Submerged Continents

Some areas of continental crust are largely covered by the sea and may be considered submerged continents. Notable examples are Zealandia, emerging from the sea primarily in New Zealand and New Caledonia, and the almost completely submerged Kerguelen continent in the southern Indian Ocean.

Microcontinents

Some islands lie on sections of continental crust that have rifted and drifted apart from a main continental landmass. While not considered continents because of their relatively small size, they may be considered microcontinents. Madagascar, the largest example, is usually considered an island of Africa but has been referred to as “the eighth continent” from a biological perspective.

 

ASIA

 

Countries : 49

Demonym : Asian

Latitude : 10° S and 80° N

Logitude : 25° E and 170° W

Area : 44,579,000 km2 (1st in World Rank)

Population : 4,164,252,000 (1st in World Rank)

Pop. :Density 87/km2

Time zones : UTC+2 to UTC+12

Major Languages : Mandarin, Hindi, Russian and Arabic

Physical Aspects of Asia

 

Oceans and Seas

Artic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, China Sea, Yellow Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea

Rivers

Ob, Yenisey, Amur, Yalu, Hwang Ho, Sikiang, Mekong, Tigris, Eupharates, Amu Darya and Syr Darya.

Lakes

Baikal, Balkash, Van Golu, Turnool, Asad, Dead Sea, Tonle Sap Toba, Lop Nor, Caspian Sea and Sea of Gallilee.

Straits

Straits of Malacca, Bering Strait

Mountains

Himalayas, Karakoram, Kailash, Kunlung shan, Tienshan, Altai, Sayan, Yablonovy, Stanvoy, Kolyama, Verkhyoyansk, Pegu Yoma, Arakan Yoma, Hindukush, Elburz, Sulaiman, Kirthar, Makran, Zagros, Pontic, Taurus.

Plains

Manchurian, Great Plain of China, West Siberian Plain, Mesopotamian, Rub-al-Khali, AI Nafud, Dasht-Deserts I-Kavir, Dasht -l-Lut, Gobi.

Plateaus

Ladakh, Tibet, Yunan, Takla Makan, Pamir, Armenian, Iranian, Mongolia, Alban, Indo-China, Shan, Deccan, Baluchistan, Arabian, Anatolia, Loess.

Peninsulas

Kamchatka Peninsula, Peninsula of Korea, Peninsula of Indo-China, Malay Peninsula, Indian Peninsula and Arabian Peninsula.

 

FAST FACTS OF ASIA

 

  1. Asia is situated in the eastern and northern hemispheres.
  2. World’s Largest lake : Caspian Sea, which separates Europe from Asia.
  3. World’ largest salt desert : Dast-e-Kavlr, Northern Iran
  4. Asia’s longest river : Yangtze Kiang, China
  5. World’s largest archipelago : Indonesia
  6. Asia’s most saline water body : Lake Van of Turkey
  7. Country of canals : Pakistan
  8. Land of Rising Sun : Japan
  9. Lop Nor lake in China is a site for numerous nuclear tests.
  10. China’s Sorrow : Hwang Ho or Yellow river.

AFRICA

 

Countries : 54 (and 2 disputed)

Demonym : African

Latitude : 35° S and 37° N

Logitude : 50° E and 17° W

Area : 30,221,532 km2 (2nd in World Rank)

Population : 1,032,532,974 (2nd in World Rank)

Pop. Density : 30.51/km2

Time zones : UTC-1 to UTC+4

Major Languages : Arabic, Somali, Berber, Amharic, Oromo, Swahili, Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba

Physical Aspects of Africa

 

Oceans and Seas

Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Guinea, Mediterranean

Rivers

Nile, Zaire or Congo, Niger, Orange, Limpopo, Zambezi

Lakes

Kariba, Nayasa, Mweru, Tanganyika, Edward, Tana, Nasser, Chad, Volta and Assal, Victoria

Straits

Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb and Straits of Gibraltar

Mountains

Atlas, Ethiopian Highlands, Mt Kenya, Mt Elgon, Mt Kilimanjaro, Drakensberg, Mt Carneroon, Mt Rouwenzori, Katanga Plateau and Jos Plateau

Desert

Sahara, Sahel, Libyan, Arabian, Nubian, Namib and Kalahari

Plateaus

Great Karoo, South African Plateau, East African Plateau

Islands

Madagascar, Cape Verde Islands, the Connors, Mauritius and Seychelles.

 

FAST FACTS OF AFRICA

  1. It is the second largest continent.
  2. It is also called as ‘Dark Continent’ or the ‘Cradle of Mankind’ because the africa is immensely rich in mineral and natural resources.
  3. Africa’s largest lake : Lake Victoria
  4. World’s longest river : Nile
  5. Congo river cuts equator twice.
  6. Orange river forms the natural boundary between South Africa and Namibia.

NORTH AMERICA

 

Countries : 23

Demonym : North American, American

Latitude : 7° N and 84° N

Logitude : 20° W and 180° W

Area : 24,709,000 km2 (3rd in World Rank)

Population : 528,720,588 (4th in World Rank)

Pop. Density : 22.9/km2

Time zones : UTC-10 to UTC

Major Languages : English, Spanish, French

 

Physical Aspects of North America

Oceans and Seas

Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of California, Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea and Hudson Bay

Rivers

Mississippi-Missouri, St Lawrence, Colorado, Columbia Sacramento, Rio Grande, Yukon, Mackenzie, Nelson, Saskatchewan Peace etc.

Lakes

Great Bear, Great Salve, Athabasca, Winnipeg, Superior Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario, Great Salt and Mead.

Straits

Straits of Canada, Straits of the Caribbean, Straits of the Greenland

Mountains

Brook’s range, Alaska,.Aleutian ranges, Cascade range, Rocky mountains, Coast range, Sierra Nevada etc.

Peninsula

Ungava, Yucatan and Kenai

Plateaus

Columbia-Snake, Colorado and Mexican.

Desert

Chihuahuan, Colorado, Mojave, Sonoran

Islands

Greenland, Baffin, Victoria, New Foundland, Cuba, Jamaica and Haiti

FAST FACTS OF NORTH AMERICA

  1. It is located in the northern and western hemisphere of the earth.
  2. World’s longest coast line : Canada
  3. World’s largest sweet water lake : Lake Superior
  4. 49th parallel forms the boundary between Canada and USA.
  5. The Panama Canal connects Atlantic and Pacific ocean.

SOUTH AMERICA

 

Countries : 13

Demonym : South American, American

Latitude : 12° N and 55° N

Logitude : 35° W and 81° W

Area : 17,840,000 km2 (4th in World Rank)

Population : 387,489,196 (5th in World Rank)

Pop. Density : 21.4 per km2

Time zones : UTC-2 to UTC-5

Major Languages : Portuguese, Spanish, English, Dutch, French, Italian, Arabic

Physical Aspects of South America

Oceans and Seas

Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Paria, Gulf of Panama, Gulf of San Matias, Gulf of San Jorge, Gulf of Penas, Scotia Sea

Rivers

Amazon, Magdalena. Orinico, Parana and La Plata

Lakes

Maracaibo, Titicaca, Popo

Straits

Straits of Magellan

Mountains

Western Mountains, Andes, Brazilian highlands and Guiana Highlands

Plateaus

Bolivian and Patagonia

Deserts

Atacama and Patagonia

 

FAST FACTS OF SOUTH AMERICA

  1. It is located in the Western Hemisphere and in the Southern Hemisphere.  A small part of the continent is also located in the Northern Hemisphere.
  2. Latin America, South America has the greatest north-south extension.
  3. World’s highest waterfall : Angel fall in Venezuela on Orinico river.
  4. South America’s Largest river : Amazon river (World’s largest rain forest)
  5. Driest place on Earth : Atacama desert
  6. World’s largest reserves of iron : Serra dos carajas hills, Brazil
  7. Coffee Bowl of World : Brazil

ANTARCTICA

 

Latitude/Longitude : 90° S, 0.00° E

Area : 14,000,000 km2 (5th in World Rank)

Population : Officially none, but governmental research stations are populated with small groups of scientists at all times. In addition, during the 2009/2010 season, nearly 37,000 tourists visited the continent.

Demonym : Antarctican

Oceans and Seas : Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Souther Ocean, Indian Ocean, Ross Sea

 

FAST FACTS OF ANTARCTICA

 

  1. It is also known as White Continent.
  2. It is the southernmost continent in the world.
  3. It was discovered in 1820.
  4. Ronald Amundsen was the first man to reach geographical South pole in Antarctica.
  5. It is located in the Antarctic region in the southern hemisphere, underlying the South Pole, Antarctica is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.
  6. The Antarctic (or Antarctica) Circle is one of the five major circles or parallels of latitude that mark maps of the Earth.
  7. Erebus is the only active volcano on Antarctica.
  8. Vinson (5140 m) is the highest peak of Antarctica.

EUROPE

 

Countries : 50

Demonym : European

Latitude : 35° N and 73° N

Longitude : 25° W and 65° E

Area : 10,180,000 km2 (6th in World Rank)

Population : 739,165,030 (3rd in World Rank)

Pop. Density : 72.5/km2

Time zones : UTC to UTC+6

Major Languages : Romance, Germanic, English, French, Italian, Spanish, Baltic, Slavic, Albanian, Celtic, Armenian and Greek

Physical Aspects of Europe

Oceans and Seas

Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, White Sea, Baltic Sea, Norwegin Sea, North Sea, Alboran Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, Celtic Sea, Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea, Sea of Azov

Rivers

Po, Tiber, Rhine, Ebro, Garrone, Loire, Seine, Weser, Elbe, Wista, Onega, Dvina, Mezen, Volga, Don, Dniepr, Dnester and Danube, Rhine

Lakes

Ladoga, Onega, Saimaa, Peipus, Beloye, Inari, Markermeer, Iron Gates

Straits

Straits of Gibraltar, Straits of Dover

Mountains

Vesuvius, Appennines, Vosges, Alps, Mt Etna, Dinaric Alps, Carpathian, Pindus, Ural, Caucasus, Black Forest, Mt Stromboli, Kjolen, Pennine, Cantabarian Pyrenees, Sierra Morena and Sierra Nevada

Plateaus

Massif Central, Meseta Central, Hardangervidda, Romanian Plateaus

Peninsula

Iberian, Balkan and Kola

Islands

Greenland, British Isles, Iceland, Sardinia, Sicicly, Crete

Gulf

Gulf of Bothnia (Sweden and Finland),Gulf of Lions (South of France)

Bay

English Channel (Britain and France), Bay of Biscay (France and Spain)

 

FAST FACTS OF EUROPE

  1. It is the second smallest continent in the world in terms of surface area.
  2. World’s largest island : Greenland
  3. Balkan States It is a group of 9 countries namely Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania and Albania. However, Montenegro became an independent state in 2006.
  4. Finland is known as the land of forests and lakes.
  5. United Kingdom is the name given to the combination of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Waves.
  6. World’s largest country of the : Russia
  7. World’s smallest country : Vatican City, Rome

AUSTRALIA

Countries : 4 (Australia, Papua New Guinea, East Timor and portions of Indonesia)

Demonym : Australian

Area : 8,600,000 km2 (7th in World Rank)

Population : 36 million (6th in World Rank)

Pop. Density : 4.2 /km2

Time zones : GMT+10, GMT+9.30, GMT+8

Major Languages : English, Indonesian, Tok Pisin, Hiri Motu

 

Physical Aspects of Australia

Oceans and Seas

Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Timor Sea, Arfura Sea, Coral Sea, Tasman Sea

Rivers

Murray, Darling, Swan, Lachlan, Cooper Creek, Paroo River

Lakes

Blue Lake, Lake eye, Pink Lake, Lake Albina, Numby Numby, Club Lake

Straits

Bass, Endeavour, Backstairs

Mountains

Great Dividing range, Darling range, Musgrave, Flinders and Australian alps

Desert

Gibson, Great Sandy, Great Victoria. Simpson, Little Sandy, Western desert, Rangipo and Tanami

Island

Tasmania

 

FAST FACTS OF AUSTRALIA

  1. Australia is known as Forgotten land.
  2. Australia is the world’s largest island, but smallest continent.
  3. It lies entirely in the Southern hemisphere. The Tropic of Capricorn runs almost through the middle of the continent and divides the continent in two equal parts.
  4. It is the only continent that is also a country and it lies between Pacific and Indian ocean.
  5. World’s largest reef system : Great Barrier Reef
  6. Australia’s Largest city : Sydney