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The transport system in India includes: Road, Rail, Inland waterways, Coastal shipping and Airways


  • India has a road network of about 46 lakh kilometres.orig-src_-susanne-posel_-daily_-news-smart-highway-solar_-roadway-netherlands-general-electric_occupycorporatism
  • India has the second largest road network in the world.
  • Indian Road Network


Types of Roads in India

Length (km)

National Highways92,851
State Highways1,63,898
Major and other district roads17,05,706
Rural & other roads27,49,805


National Highways Authority of India (NHAI)

The National Highways Authority of India was constituted by an act of Parliament, the National Highways Authority of India Act, 1988. It is responsible for the development, maintenance and management of National Highways entrusted to it and for matters connected or incidental thereto. The Authority was operationalised in Feb, 1995.


National Highway Development Programme (NHDP)

The National Highways Development Project is a project to upgrade, rehabilitate and widen major highways in India to a higher standard. The project was implemented in 1998 under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

Golden Quadrilateral connects Four Metropolitan Cities (i.e. Delhi-Mumbai-Chennai-Kolkata-Delhi).

NS (North-South) Corridor Connects Srinagar to Kanniakumari and EW (East-West) Corridor Connects Porbandar to Silchar.


The project-wise details NHDP all Phases as below.

NHDP Phase



NHDP-I & IIBalance work of GQ and EW-NS corridors13,000 km
NHDP-III4-laning10,000 km
NHDP-IV2-laning20,000 km
NHDP-V6-laning of selected stretches5,000 km
NHDP-VIDevelopment of expressways1,000 km
NHDP-VIIRing Roads, Bypasses, Grade Separators, Service Roads etc.700 km


Major National Highways


NH No.


Distance in km

NH-1New Delhi – Ambala – Jalandhar – Amritsar456
NH-2Delhi – Mathura – Agra – Kanpur – Allahabad – Varanasi – Kolkata1465
NH-3Agra – Gwalior – Nasik – Mumbai1161
NH-4Mumbai – Pune – Bangalore – Chennai1235
NH-5Jharpokharia – Bhubaneshwar  – Vijaywada – Chennai1533
NH-6Hajira – Kolkata1949
NH-7Varanasi – Nagpur – Hyderabad – Bangalore – Kanyakumari2369
NH-8Delhi – Jaipur – Ahmedabad – Mumbai1428
NH-9Pune – Hyderabad – Vijaywada841
NH-10Delhi – Fazilka403
NH-11Agra – Jaipur – Bikaner582
NH-12Jabalpur – Bhopal – Jaipur890
NH-15Pathankot – Bikaner – Samakhiali1526
NH-17Panvel – Mangalore – Edapally1269
NH-31Barhi – Guwahati1125
NH-76Pindwara – Allahabad1007
NH-86Kanpur – Dewas674
NH-200Raipur – Chandikhole740
NH-217Raipur – Gopalpur508




  1. Rail operations in India are handled by Indian Railways, a state-owned organization of the Ministry of Railways.
  2. It is one of the world’s largest railway networks comprising 115,000 km of track over a route of 65,808 km and 7,112 stations.



First Passenger Train Ran On

16th April 1853 (between Bombay to Thane)

First Railway BridgeDapoorie Viaduct on the Mumbai-Thane route
First Rail TunnelParsik Tunnel (1865) near Thaane
First Ghats Covered by the Rail linesThal and Bhore Ghats
First Underground RailwayCalcutta METRO
First Computerized Reservation System started inNew Delhi (1986)
First Electric Train ran on3rd Feb’ 1925 (between Bombay VT and Kurla)
Toilets on Trains were introduced in1891 (1st Class) & 1907 (lower classes)
Shortest Station NameIb (Odisha)
Longest Station NameVenkatanarasimharajuvariapeta (Tamil Nadu)
Longest Railway Platform in the WorldGorakhpur Junction railway station (1.35 km lenght)
Longest Railway BridgeVembanad Rail Bridge (4,620 m lenght)
Longest TunnelPir Panjal Railway Tunnel (11,215 m lenght)
Oldest Preserved LocomotiveFairy Queen (1855), still in working order
Indian Railway’s Fastest TrainBhopal-Shatabdi (runs at a speed up to 195 km/h)
Train with Maximum Number of HaltsHowrah-Amritsar Express (115 halts)
·         The manufacture of steam locomotives in the country was stopped in 1972.

·         The Rail Museum in Delhi is the largest in Asia.

·         The longest running train covers a distance of 4273 km between Dibrugarh and Kanyakumari: It’s called the Vivek Express.

·         The shortest distance covered between two successive stations is 3 kilometers

·         The railway station of Navapur is built in two states; half in Maharashtra and the rest is in Gujarat.

·         Indian Railways has a mascot – Bholu, the Guard Elephant.

·         The Maharajas’ Express is a luxury train owned and operated by Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation. The Maharajas’ Express was voted “The World’s Leading Luxury Train” thrice, in a row at The World Travel Awards, 2012, 2013 and 2014.

·         Diamond Quadrilateral is a project of the Indian railways to establish high speed rail network in India. It will connect the four metro cities in India, i.e. Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.



Railway Zones in India


There are 16 zones and the 68 divisions in Indian Railways.


Name Railway : Abbreviation

Length in km

Date Established


Central : CR390505-11-1951Mumbai
East Central : ECR362801-10-2002Hajipur
East Coast : ECoR257201-04-2003Bhubaneswar
Eastern : ER241414-04-1952Kolkata
North Central : NCR315101-04-2003Allahabad
North Eastern : NER366714-04-1952Gorakhpur
North Western : NWR545901-10-2002Jaipur
Northeast Frontier : NFR390715-01-1958Guwahati
Northern : NR696814-04-1952Delhi
South Central : SCR580302-10-1966Secunderabad
South East Central : SECR244705-04-2003Bilaspur
South Eastern : SER263101-08-1955Kolkata
South Western : SWR317701-04-2003Hubli
Southern : SR509814-04-1951Chennai
West Central : WCR296501-04-2003Jabalpur
Western : WR618205-11-1951Mumbai





The Central Water Transport Corporation (CIWTC) formed in 1967, headquartered in Kolkata, is mainly involved in transportation of goods, and the Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) formed on October 27, 1986 for the development and regulation of inland waterways for shipping and navigation.




Estd. In

Distance covered

NW 1Allahabad – Haldia stretch of the Ganges – Bhagirathi – Hooghly river systemOctober 19861620 km
NW 2Sadiya  – Dhubri stretch of Brahmaputra riverSeptember 1988891 km
NW 3Kottapuram – Kollam stretch of the West Coast Canal, Champakara Canal and Udyogmandal CanalFebruary 1993205 km
NW 4Kakinada – Pondicherry stretch of canals and the Kaluvelly Tank, Bhadrachalam – Rajahmundry stretch of River Godavari and Wazirabad – Vijayawada stretch of River KrishnaNovember 20081095 km
NW 5Talcher – Dhamra stretch of the Brahmani River, the Geonkhali – Charbatia stretch of the East Coast Canal, the Charbatia – Dhamra stretch of Matai river and the Mangalgadi – Paradip stretch of the Mahanadi River DeltaNovember 2008623 km
NW 6Lakhipur to Bhanga of river Barak2013121 km
* NW = National Waterway



  • Indian coastline is about 7516.6 kilometers and it is one of the biggest peninsulas in the world.
  • India has 12 Major ports that handle large volume of traffic and 200 minor ports in India.
  • The Major Ports are administered by the central government’s shipping ministry.
  • The Minor and Intermediate ports are administered by the relevant departments or ministries in the nine coastal states.
  • The Coastal States in India are Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and


Major Ports in India


Name and Coast




Chennai – ECTamil NaduBay of BengalSecond largest port
Cochin – WCKeralaArabian SeaNatural Harbour
Ennore – ECTamil NaduBay of BengalMost modern-in private hands
Jawaharlal Nehru – WCMaharashtraArabian SeaLargest container port
Kandla – WCGujaratArabian SeaFirst special economic zone
Kolkata – ECWest BengalBay of BengalOldest operating port
Maormugoa – WCGoaArabian SeaGoa’s main port
Mumbai – WCMaharashtraArabian SeaBusiest and biggest port
New Mangalore – WCKarnatakaArabian SeaExports Kudremukh iron-ore
Paradip – ECOdishaBay of BengalExports raw iron to Japan
Tuticorin – ECTamil NaduBay of BengalSouthernmost
Vishakhapatnam – ECAndhra PradeshBay of BengalDeepest Port
* WC : Western Coast  & EC : Eastern Coast




  • India has bilateral Air Service Agreement with 103 countries.
  • There are 450 airports in the country in various stages of development.
  • Airports Authority of India (AAI), constituted in April 1995, manages a total of 125 Airports, which include 14 International Airports, 08 Customs Airports, 81 Domestic Airports and 25 Civil Enclaves at Defence Airfields.
  • Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Panaji, Srinagar, and Thiruvananthapuram are international airports.
  • The Government of India has introduced ‘Open Air Policy’ for cargo in 1992.
  • The Air India was established in 1947 deals mainly with international air service. Indian Airlines set up in 1953, is a major domestic air career of the country.


International Airports in India




State/Union Territory

Veer Savarkar International AirportPort BlairAndaman and

Nicobar Islands

Visakhapatnam AirportVisakhapatnamAndhra Pradesh
Rajiv Gandhi International AirportHyderabadAndhra Pradesh
Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International AirportGuwahatiAssam
Indira Gandhi International AirportNew DelhiDelhi
Goa International Airportwhole stateGoa
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International AirportAhmedabadGujarat
Bengaluru International AirportBengaluruKarnataka
Mangalore International AirportMangaloreKarnataka
Cochin International AirportKochiKerala
Calicut International AirportKozhikodeKerala
Trivandrum International AirportThiruvananthapuramKerala
Chhatrapati Shivaji International AirportMumbaiMaharashtra
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International AirportNagpurMaharashtra
Tulihal AirportImphalManipur
Biju Patnaik International AirportBhubaneswarOdisha
Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International AirportAmritsarPunjab
Jaipur International AirportJaipurRajasthan
Chennai International AirportChennaiTamil Nadu
Coimbatore International AirportCoimbatoreTamil Nadu
Tiruchirapalli International AirportTiruchirapalliTamil Nadu
Chaudhary Charan Singh AirportLucknowUttar Pradesh
Lal Bahadur Shastri AirportVaranasiUttar Pradesh
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International AirportKolkataWest Bengal