The transport system in India includes: Road, Rail, Inland waterways, Coastal shipping and Airways


  • India has a road network of about 46 lakh kilometres.orig-src_-susanne-posel_-daily_-news-smart-highway-solar_-roadway-netherlands-general-electric_occupycorporatism
  • India has the second largest road network in the world.
  • Indian Road Network


Types of Roads in India

Length (km)

Expressways 1,208
National Highways 92,851
State Highways 1,63,898
Major and other district roads 17,05,706
Rural & other roads 27,49,805


National Highways Authority of India (NHAI)

The National Highways Authority of India was constituted by an act of Parliament, the National Highways Authority of India Act, 1988. It is responsible for the development, maintenance and management of National Highways entrusted to it and for matters connected or incidental thereto. The Authority was operationalised in Feb, 1995.


National Highway Development Programme (NHDP)

The National Highways Development Project is a project to upgrade, rehabilitate and widen major highways in India to a higher standard. The project was implemented in 1998 under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

Golden Quadrilateral connects Four Metropolitan Cities (i.e. Delhi-Mumbai-Chennai-Kolkata-Delhi).

NS (North-South) Corridor Connects Srinagar to Kanniakumari and EW (East-West) Corridor Connects Porbandar to Silchar.


The project-wise details NHDP all Phases as below.

NHDP Phase



NHDP-I & II Balance work of GQ and EW-NS corridors 13,000 km
NHDP-III 4-laning 10,000 km
NHDP-IV 2-laning 20,000 km
NHDP-V 6-laning of selected stretches 5,000 km
NHDP-VI Development of expressways 1,000 km
NHDP-VII Ring Roads, Bypasses, Grade Separators, Service Roads etc. 700 km


Major National Highways


NH No.


Distance in km

NH-1 New Delhi – Ambala – Jalandhar – Amritsar 456
NH-2 Delhi – Mathura – Agra – Kanpur – Allahabad – Varanasi – Kolkata 1465
NH-3 Agra – Gwalior – Nasik – Mumbai 1161
NH-4 Mumbai – Pune – Bangalore – Chennai 1235
NH-5 Jharpokharia – Bhubaneshwar  – Vijaywada – Chennai 1533
NH-6 Hajira – Kolkata 1949
NH-7 Varanasi – Nagpur – Hyderabad – Bangalore – Kanyakumari 2369
NH-8 Delhi – Jaipur – Ahmedabad – Mumbai 1428
NH-9 Pune – Hyderabad – Vijaywada 841
NH-10 Delhi – Fazilka 403
NH-11 Agra – Jaipur – Bikaner 582
NH-12 Jabalpur – Bhopal – Jaipur 890
NH-15 Pathankot – Bikaner – Samakhiali 1526
NH-17 Panvel – Mangalore – Edapally 1269
NH-31 Barhi – Guwahati 1125
NH-76 Pindwara – Allahabad 1007
NH-86 Kanpur – Dewas 674
NH-200 Raipur – Chandikhole 740
NH-217 Raipur – Gopalpur 508




  1. Rail operations in India are handled by Indian Railways, a state-owned organization of the Ministry of Railways.
  2. It is one of the world’s largest railway networks comprising 115,000 km of track over a route of 65,808 km and 7,112 stations.



First Passenger Train Ran On

16th April 1853 (between Bombay to Thane)

First Railway Bridge Dapoorie Viaduct on the Mumbai-Thane route
First Rail Tunnel Parsik Tunnel (1865) near Thaane
First Ghats Covered by the Rail lines Thal and Bhore Ghats
First Underground Railway Calcutta METRO
First Computerized Reservation System started in New Delhi (1986)
First Electric Train ran on 3rd Feb’ 1925 (between Bombay VT and Kurla)
Toilets on Trains were introduced in 1891 (1st Class) & 1907 (lower classes)
Shortest Station Name Ib (Odisha)
Longest Station Name Venkatanarasimharajuvariapeta (Tamil Nadu)
Longest Railway Platform in the World Gorakhpur Junction railway station (1.35 km lenght)
Longest Railway Bridge Vembanad Rail Bridge (4,620 m lenght)
Longest Tunnel Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel (11,215 m lenght)
Oldest Preserved Locomotive Fairy Queen (1855), still in working order
Indian Railway’s Fastest Train Bhopal-Shatabdi (runs at a speed up to 195 km/h)
Train with Maximum Number of Halts Howrah-Amritsar Express (115 halts)
·         The manufacture of steam locomotives in the country was stopped in 1972.

·         The Rail Museum in Delhi is the largest in Asia.

·         The longest running train covers a distance of 4273 km between Dibrugarh and Kanyakumari: It’s called the Vivek Express.

·         The shortest distance covered between two successive stations is 3 kilometers

·         The railway station of Navapur is built in two states; half in Maharashtra and the rest is in Gujarat.

·         Indian Railways has a mascot – Bholu, the Guard Elephant.

·         The Maharajas’ Express is a luxury train owned and operated by Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation. The Maharajas’ Express was voted “The World’s Leading Luxury Train” thrice, in a row at The World Travel Awards, 2012, 2013 and 2014.

·         Diamond Quadrilateral is a project of the Indian railways to establish high speed rail network in India. It will connect the four metro cities in India, i.e. Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.



Railway Zones in India


There are 16 zones and the 68 divisions in Indian Railways.


Name Railway : Abbreviation

Length in km

Date Established


Central : CR 3905 05-11-1951 Mumbai
East Central : ECR 3628 01-10-2002 Hajipur
East Coast : ECoR 2572 01-04-2003 Bhubaneswar
Eastern : ER 2414 14-04-1952 Kolkata
North Central : NCR 3151 01-04-2003 Allahabad
North Eastern : NER 3667 14-04-1952 Gorakhpur
North Western : NWR 5459 01-10-2002 Jaipur
Northeast Frontier : NFR 3907 15-01-1958 Guwahati
Northern : NR 6968 14-04-1952 Delhi
South Central : SCR 5803 02-10-1966 Secunderabad
South East Central : SECR 2447 05-04-2003 Bilaspur
South Eastern : SER 2631 01-08-1955 Kolkata
South Western : SWR 3177 01-04-2003 Hubli
Southern : SR 5098 14-04-1951 Chennai
West Central : WCR 2965 01-04-2003 Jabalpur
Western : WR 6182 05-11-1951 Mumbai





The Central Water Transport Corporation (CIWTC) formed in 1967, headquartered in Kolkata, is mainly involved in transportation of goods, and the Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) formed on October 27, 1986 for the development and regulation of inland waterways for shipping and navigation.




Estd. In

Distance covered

NW 1 Allahabad – Haldia stretch of the Ganges – Bhagirathi – Hooghly river system October 1986 1620 km
NW 2 Sadiya  – Dhubri stretch of Brahmaputra river September 1988 891 km
NW 3 Kottapuram – Kollam stretch of the West Coast Canal, Champakara Canal and Udyogmandal Canal February 1993 205 km
NW 4 Kakinada – Pondicherry stretch of canals and the Kaluvelly Tank, Bhadrachalam – Rajahmundry stretch of River Godavari and Wazirabad – Vijayawada stretch of River Krishna November 2008 1095 km
NW 5 Talcher – Dhamra stretch of the Brahmani River, the Geonkhali – Charbatia stretch of the East Coast Canal, the Charbatia – Dhamra stretch of Matai river and the Mangalgadi – Paradip stretch of the Mahanadi River Delta November 2008 623 km
NW 6 Lakhipur to Bhanga of river Barak 2013 121 km
* NW = National Waterway



  • Indian coastline is about 7516.6 kilometers and it is one of the biggest peninsulas in the world.
  • India has 12 Major ports that handle large volume of traffic and 200 minor ports in India.
  • The Major Ports are administered by the central government’s shipping ministry.
  • The Minor and Intermediate ports are administered by the relevant departments or ministries in the nine coastal states.
  • The Coastal States in India are Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and


Major Ports in India


Name and Coast




Chennai – EC Tamil Nadu Bay of Bengal Second largest port
Cochin – WC Kerala Arabian Sea Natural Harbour
Ennore – EC Tamil Nadu Bay of Bengal Most modern-in private hands
Jawaharlal Nehru – WC Maharashtra Arabian Sea Largest container port
Kandla – WC Gujarat Arabian Sea First special economic zone
Kolkata – EC West Bengal Bay of Bengal Oldest operating port
Maormugoa – WC Goa Arabian Sea Goa’s main port
Mumbai – WC Maharashtra Arabian Sea Busiest and biggest port
New Mangalore – WC Karnataka Arabian Sea Exports Kudremukh iron-ore
Paradip – EC Odisha Bay of Bengal Exports raw iron to Japan
Tuticorin – EC Tamil Nadu Bay of Bengal Southernmost
Vishakhapatnam – EC Andhra Pradesh Bay of Bengal Deepest Port
* WC : Western Coast  & EC : Eastern Coast




  • India has bilateral Air Service Agreement with 103 countries.
  • There are 450 airports in the country in various stages of development.
  • Airports Authority of India (AAI), constituted in April 1995, manages a total of 125 Airports, which include 14 International Airports, 08 Customs Airports, 81 Domestic Airports and 25 Civil Enclaves at Defence Airfields.
  • Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Panaji, Srinagar, and Thiruvananthapuram are international airports.
  • The Government of India has introduced ‘Open Air Policy’ for cargo in 1992.
  • The Air India was established in 1947 deals mainly with international air service. Indian Airlines set up in 1953, is a major domestic air career of the country.


International Airports in India




State/Union Territory

Veer Savarkar International Airport Port Blair Andaman and

Nicobar Islands

Visakhapatnam Airport Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh
Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport Guwahati Assam
Indira Gandhi International Airport New Delhi Delhi
Goa International Airport whole state Goa
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport Ahmedabad Gujarat
Bengaluru International Airport Bengaluru Karnataka
Mangalore International Airport Mangalore Karnataka
Cochin International Airport Kochi Kerala
Calicut International Airport Kozhikode Kerala
Trivandrum International Airport Thiruvananthapuram Kerala
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport Mumbai Maharashtra
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport Nagpur Maharashtra
Tulihal Airport Imphal Manipur
Biju Patnaik International Airport Bhubaneswar Odisha
Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport Amritsar Punjab
Jaipur International Airport Jaipur Rajasthan
Chennai International Airport Chennai Tamil Nadu
Coimbatore International Airport Coimbatore Tamil Nadu
Tiruchirapalli International Airport Tiruchirapalli Tamil Nadu
Chaudhary Charan Singh Airport Lucknow Uttar Pradesh
Lal Bahadur Shastri Airport Varanasi Uttar Pradesh
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport Kolkata West Bengal



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