The transport system in India includes: Road, Rail, Inland waterways, Coastal shipping and Airways
- India has a road network of about 46 lakh kilometres.
- India has the second largest road network in the world.
- Indian Road Network
Types of Roads in India
|Major and other district roads||17,05,706|
|Rural & other roads||27,49,805|
National Highways Authority of India (NHAI)
The National Highways Authority of India was constituted by an act of Parliament, the National Highways Authority of India Act, 1988. It is responsible for the development, maintenance and management of National Highways entrusted to it and for matters connected or incidental thereto. The Authority was operationalised in Feb, 1995.
National Highway Development Programme (NHDP)
The National Highways Development Project is a project to upgrade, rehabilitate and widen major highways in India to a higher standard. The project was implemented in 1998 under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
Golden Quadrilateral connects Four Metropolitan Cities (i.e. Delhi-Mumbai-Chennai-Kolkata-Delhi).
NS (North-South) Corridor Connects Srinagar to Kanniakumari and EW (East-West) Corridor Connects Porbandar to Silchar.
The project-wise details NHDP all Phases as below.
|NHDP-I & II||Balance work of GQ and EW-NS corridors||13,000 km|
|NHDP-V||6-laning of selected stretches||5,000 km|
|NHDP-VI||Development of expressways||1,000 km|
|NHDP-VII||Ring Roads, Bypasses, Grade Separators, Service Roads etc.||700 km|
Major National Highways
Distance in km
|NH-1||New Delhi – Ambala – Jalandhar – Amritsar||456|
|NH-2||Delhi – Mathura – Agra – Kanpur – Allahabad – Varanasi – Kolkata||1465|
|NH-3||Agra – Gwalior – Nasik – Mumbai||1161|
|NH-4||Mumbai – Pune – Bangalore – Chennai||1235|
|NH-5||Jharpokharia – Bhubaneshwar – Vijaywada – Chennai||1533|
|NH-6||Hajira – Kolkata||1949|
|NH-7||Varanasi – Nagpur – Hyderabad – Bangalore – Kanyakumari||2369|
|NH-8||Delhi – Jaipur – Ahmedabad – Mumbai||1428|
|NH-9||Pune – Hyderabad – Vijaywada||841|
|NH-10||Delhi – Fazilka||403|
|NH-11||Agra – Jaipur – Bikaner||582|
|NH-12||Jabalpur – Bhopal – Jaipur||890|
|NH-15||Pathankot – Bikaner – Samakhiali||1526|
|NH-17||Panvel – Mangalore – Edapally||1269|
|NH-31||Barhi – Guwahati||1125|
|NH-76||Pindwara – Allahabad||1007|
|NH-86||Kanpur – Dewas||674|
|NH-200||Raipur – Chandikhole||740|
|NH-217||Raipur – Gopalpur||508|
- Rail operations in India are handled by Indian Railways, a state-owned organization of the Ministry of Railways.
- It is one of the world’s largest railway networks comprising 115,000 km of track over a route of 65,808 km and 7,112 stations.
FAST FACTS OF INDIAN RAILWAYS
First Passenger Train Ran On
16th April 1853 (between Bombay to Thane)
|First Railway Bridge||Dapoorie Viaduct on the Mumbai-Thane route|
|First Rail Tunnel||Parsik Tunnel (1865) near Thaane|
|First Ghats Covered by the Rail lines||Thal and Bhore Ghats|
|First Underground Railway||Calcutta METRO|
|First Computerized Reservation System started in||New Delhi (1986)|
|First Electric Train ran on||3rd Feb’ 1925 (between Bombay VT and Kurla)|
|Toilets on Trains were introduced in||1891 (1st Class) & 1907 (lower classes)|
|Shortest Station Name||Ib (Odisha)|
|Longest Station Name||Venkatanarasimharajuvariapeta (Tamil Nadu)|
|Longest Railway Platform in the World||Gorakhpur Junction railway station (1.35 km lenght)|
|Longest Railway Bridge||Vembanad Rail Bridge (4,620 m lenght)|
|Longest Tunnel||Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel (11,215 m lenght)|
|Oldest Preserved Locomotive||Fairy Queen (1855), still in working order|
|Indian Railway’s Fastest Train||Bhopal-Shatabdi (runs at a speed up to 195 km/h)|
|Train with Maximum Number of Halts||Howrah-Amritsar Express (115 halts)|
|· The manufacture of steam locomotives in the country was stopped in 1972.|
· The Rail Museum in Delhi is the largest in Asia.
· The longest running train covers a distance of 4273 km between Dibrugarh and Kanyakumari: It’s called the Vivek Express.
· The shortest distance covered between two successive stations is 3 kilometers
· The railway station of Navapur is built in two states; half in Maharashtra and the rest is in Gujarat.
· Indian Railways has a mascot – Bholu, the Guard Elephant.
· The Maharajas’ Express is a luxury train owned and operated by Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation. The Maharajas’ Express was voted “The World’s Leading Luxury Train” thrice, in a row at The World Travel Awards, 2012, 2013 and 2014.
· Diamond Quadrilateral is a project of the Indian railways to establish high speed rail network in India. It will connect the four metro cities in India, i.e. Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.
Railway Zones in India
There are 16 zones and the 68 divisions in Indian Railways.
Name Railway : Abbreviation
Length in km
|Central : CR||3905||05-11-1951||Mumbai|
|East Central : ECR||3628||01-10-2002||Hajipur|
|East Coast : ECoR||2572||01-04-2003||Bhubaneswar|
|Eastern : ER||2414||14-04-1952||Kolkata|
|North Central : NCR||3151||01-04-2003||Allahabad|
|North Eastern : NER||3667||14-04-1952||Gorakhpur|
|North Western : NWR||5459||01-10-2002||Jaipur|
|Northeast Frontier : NFR||3907||15-01-1958||Guwahati|
|Northern : NR||6968||14-04-1952||Delhi|
|South Central : SCR||5803||02-10-1966||Secunderabad|
|South East Central : SECR||2447||05-04-2003||Bilaspur|
|South Eastern : SER||2631||01-08-1955||Kolkata|
|South Western : SWR||3177||01-04-2003||Hubli|
|Southern : SR||5098||14-04-1951||Chennai|
|West Central : WCR||2965||01-04-2003||Jabalpur|
|Western : WR||6182||05-11-1951||Mumbai|
The Central Water Transport Corporation (CIWTC) formed in 1967, headquartered in Kolkata, is mainly involved in transportation of goods, and the Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) formed on October 27, 1986 for the development and regulation of inland waterways for shipping and navigation.
|NW 1||Allahabad – Haldia stretch of the Ganges – Bhagirathi – Hooghly river system||October 1986||1620 km|
|NW 2||Sadiya – Dhubri stretch of Brahmaputra river||September 1988||891 km|
|NW 3||Kottapuram – Kollam stretch of the West Coast Canal, Champakara Canal and Udyogmandal Canal||February 1993||205 km|
|NW 4||Kakinada – Pondicherry stretch of canals and the Kaluvelly Tank, Bhadrachalam – Rajahmundry stretch of River Godavari and Wazirabad – Vijayawada stretch of River Krishna||November 2008||1095 km|
|NW 5||Talcher – Dhamra stretch of the Brahmani River, the Geonkhali – Charbatia stretch of the East Coast Canal, the Charbatia – Dhamra stretch of Matai river and the Mangalgadi – Paradip stretch of the Mahanadi River Delta||November 2008||623 km|
|NW 6||Lakhipur to Bhanga of river Barak||2013||121 km|
|* NW = National Waterway|
- Indian coastline is about 7516.6 kilometers and it is one of the biggest peninsulas in the world.
- India has 12 Major ports that handle large volume of traffic and 200 minor ports in India.
- The Major Ports are administered by the central government’s shipping ministry.
- The Minor and Intermediate ports are administered by the relevant departments or ministries in the nine coastal states.
- The Coastal States in India are Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and
Major Ports in India
Name and Coast
|Chennai – EC||Tamil Nadu||Bay of Bengal||Second largest port|
|Cochin – WC||Kerala||Arabian Sea||Natural Harbour|
|Ennore – EC||Tamil Nadu||Bay of Bengal||Most modern-in private hands|
|Jawaharlal Nehru – WC||Maharashtra||Arabian Sea||Largest container port|
|Kandla – WC||Gujarat||Arabian Sea||First special economic zone|
|Kolkata – EC||West Bengal||Bay of Bengal||Oldest operating port|
|Maormugoa – WC||Goa||Arabian Sea||Goa’s main port|
|Mumbai – WC||Maharashtra||Arabian Sea||Busiest and biggest port|
|New Mangalore – WC||Karnataka||Arabian Sea||Exports Kudremukh iron-ore|
|Paradip – EC||Odisha||Bay of Bengal||Exports raw iron to Japan|
|Tuticorin – EC||Tamil Nadu||Bay of Bengal||Southernmost|
|Vishakhapatnam – EC||Andhra Pradesh||Bay of Bengal||Deepest Port|
|* WC : Western Coast & EC : Eastern Coast|
- India has bilateral Air Service Agreement with 103 countries.
- There are 450 airports in the country in various stages of development.
- Airports Authority of India (AAI), constituted in April 1995, manages a total of 125 Airports, which include 14 International Airports, 08 Customs Airports, 81 Domestic Airports and 25 Civil Enclaves at Defence Airfields.
- Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Panaji, Srinagar, and Thiruvananthapuram are international airports.
- The Government of India has introduced ‘Open Air Policy’ for cargo in 1992.
- The Air India was established in 1947 deals mainly with international air service. Indian Airlines set up in 1953, is a major domestic air career of the country.
International Airports in India
|Veer Savarkar International Airport||Port Blair||Andaman and|
|Visakhapatnam Airport||Visakhapatnam||Andhra Pradesh|
|Rajiv Gandhi International Airport||Hyderabad||Andhra Pradesh|
|Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport||Guwahati||Assam|
|Indira Gandhi International Airport||New Delhi||Delhi|
|Goa International Airport||whole state||Goa|
|Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport||Ahmedabad||Gujarat|
|Bengaluru International Airport||Bengaluru||Karnataka|
|Mangalore International Airport||Mangalore||Karnataka|
|Cochin International Airport||Kochi||Kerala|
|Calicut International Airport||Kozhikode||Kerala|
|Trivandrum International Airport||Thiruvananthapuram||Kerala|
|Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport||Mumbai||Maharashtra|
|Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport||Nagpur||Maharashtra|
|Biju Patnaik International Airport||Bhubaneswar||Odisha|
|Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport||Amritsar||Punjab|
|Jaipur International Airport||Jaipur||Rajasthan|
|Chennai International Airport||Chennai||Tamil Nadu|
|Coimbatore International Airport||Coimbatore||Tamil Nadu|
|Tiruchirapalli International Airport||Tiruchirapalli||Tamil Nadu|
|Chaudhary Charan Singh Airport||Lucknow||Uttar Pradesh|
|Lal Bahadur Shastri Airport||Varanasi||Uttar Pradesh|
|Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport||Kolkata||West Bengal|