Industries in India – Part 01 – Types of Industries in India

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Industries of India – Part 1

Primary Industries

  • This industry Uses natural raw material as its final product.
  •  For Examples Hunting, pastoral activities, fishing, forestry, agriculture etc.

Secondary Industries

It Makes complex products using the material obtained from primary industry for example :

  • Steel    Automobiles, Railway engines
  • Wooden Pulp    Rayon

Secondary Industry can be sub classified into

  • Heavy Industries
  • Light industries 

Tertiary Industries

  • It is not a branch of manufacturing sector but sells the product of primary and secondary industries via transport, trading, wholesale & retailing
  • Basically it includes Service providers.
  • For ex : tourism, education, entertainment, advertisements, consultancy, Administration, healthcare etc.

Various Factors responsible for the location of industries 

  • Availability of Raw Material
  • Power Resources
  • Availability of water
  • Labor
  • Transportation
  • Availability of Market
  • Capital
  • Government Policies

Indian Industries

The agro based industries totally contribute approx. 17.32% to Indian GDP

Cottage Industries

  • It provides jobs to large segment of population and it can be started with low investment
  • Helps to earn additional income for rural people
  • Use local raw material ensures Optimum utilization of national resources
  • Generate seasonal as well as perennial employment for Labour
  • Play significant role in our national economy

Timber industry

  • Near raw material – Dependent on bamboo, softwood
  • E.g. South Gujarat, Odisha, MP
  • Near market Kolkata : Raw material brought from North Eastern States, cheap labor, coal, water available
  • Lucknow : Depend on bagasse (from sugar mills rags) wheat bran & Sabai grass brought from Tarai region

Cotton and Textile Industry

Cotton as a raw material is lightweight & non-perishable

  • Cotton changed to yarn/textile  Hardly incurs any weight loss
  • Therefore, proximity to raw material site is not essential
  • factors become more important in industrial location viz. nearness to market, nearness to water body (for dyeing, bleaching) , Energy to run power looms and textile machines,  cheap Labor supply & availability of capital/finance.
  • In dry climate, the cotton-threads will break quickly during spinning. So, cotton textiles were setup near coastal areas.
  • Major Cotton Industry location in India is in Mumbai, Ahmadabad and Coimbatore.

Silk Industry

  • India has vast Labor & market to match silk farming
  • India grows all important varieties of silk viz. Mulberry, Tasar, Oak Tasar, Eri and Muga
  • Mulberry silk  Mainly in Southern states (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh) + WB + J & K
  • Non Mulberry → Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha + North East

Jute Industry West Bengal (India)

Raw material 90% of Jute is cultivated in the Kolkata hinterland

Jute is the only crop that can withstand flooding of this region

Water Jute processing require large quantity of water for washing, bleaching & retting

Easily available from Hubly river

Labour Jute-processing is Labour intensive

Cheap Labour available from Bihar, Odisha, W Bengal

Sugar Industry

 Nature of Raw material

  • Sugar mills are located near sugar growing areas, because of two factors
  • Perishable  Sugarcane contains sucrose & once you cut the sugarcane, the sucrose content starts to decline. Hence raw material must be quickly transported.
  • Weight loss → Sugar accounts for only ~10% of the bulky sugarcane and therefore it is prohibitively expensive to transport sugarcane over long-distance in its original form.

Sugar mill

Input Sugarcane
Process Sugarcane is crushed between rollers and gives Sugar juice

Sugar juice + lime + boiling  Crystallization of sugar

Output  Raw coarse brown sugar Needs further refining

Bagasse is Used as Fodder, Energy Fuel, & in Paper pulp industry

Molasses is  Used to produce ethanol

Location Principle  E.g. in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, South Gujarat, Karnataka, TN, Andhra Pradesh


Tea plantation Industry

Labour availability

  • Weeding, manure, pruning and plucking  tedious job + need skill + patience
  • Cheap Labour force is essential
  • Since tea has to be grown in hill slopes, mechanization is not possible
  • Even while drying, rolling, fermentation, grading and packaging of tea, skilled manpower needed
  • Therefore, tea plantation is done near areas with high population density

Raw material

  • Tea leaves to tea, involves considerable weight loss
  • Hence tea processing is done in the estate/plantation itself
  • Further blending/repacking could be done at break of the bulk location


  • Frost damages the leaves & Very long winter retards plant growth hence decreases yield


  • Doesn’t like stagnant water
  • Hence, has to be grown on highland or hill slopes
  • for e.g. hills of Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri (West Bengal) & Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu)
  • In the next lesson we would see about the other industry sectors

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