- It is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
- It is derived from two Greek words ‘geo’ mean earth ‘graphein’ means description.
- Eratosthenes was the first person to use the word “geography” and is known as the father of geography.
- One of the first estimates of the radius of the Earth was made by Eratosthenes.
- Anaximander created the first map of world.
- AinviIJe made the first map of India.
- Ptolemy first presented India on the world map.
Branches of Geography
Generally geography is divided into two main branches i.e. human geography and physical geography.
It is a branch of the Geography that studies the world, its people, communities and cultures with an emphasis on relations of land across space and place.
Various fields of human geography are
- Economic Geography : deals with the distribution of production, goods and wealth
- Population Geography : deals with the distribution, migration, and growth of population in geographic areas
- Geography of Religions : geographic distribution of religious groups and their cultures.
- Medical Geography : geographic distribution of health, disease and death.
- Military Geography : geographic distribution of military facilities and troops
- Political Geography : geography of a particular region influences its political structure
- Agricultural and Rural Geography : study of agriculture and rural settlement
- Urban Geography : the location, structure, development, and growth of cities
It deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment.Various fields of human geography are :
- Geomorphology : study the landforms of the planet, from their development to their disappearance.
- Hydrology : deals with the amounts and quality of water moving and accumulating on the land surface and in the soils and rocks.
- Glaciology : study of glaciers and ice sheets.
- Biogeography : study of relationships of organisms with their environment.
- Climatology : study of the climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a long period of time.
- Pedology : study of soils in their natural environment.
- Coastal geography : study of the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land.
- Oceanography : deals with Earth’s oceans and seas.
- Geomatics : deals with gathering, storing, processing, and delivering of geographic information.
- Environmental geography : is a branch of geography that analyzes the spatial aspects of interactions between humans and the natural world.