• It is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
  • It is derived from two Greek words ‘geo’ mean earth ‘graphein’ means description.
  • Eratosthenes was the first person to use the word “geography” and is known as the father of geography.
  • One of the first estimates of the radius of the Earth was made by Eratosthenes.
  • Anaximander created the first map of world.
  • AinviIJe made the first map of India.
  • Ptolemy first presented India on the world map.
  • Branches of Geography

    Generally geography is divided into two main branches i.e. human geography and physical geography.

    Human Geography

    It is a branch of the Geography that studies the world, its people, communities and cultures with an emphasis on relations of land across space and place.

    Various fields of human geography are

    1. Economic Geography : deals with the distribution of production, goods and wealth
    2. Population Geography : deals with the distribution, migration, and growth of population in geographic areas
    3. Geography of Religions : geographic distribution of religious groups and their cultures.
    4. Medical Geography : geographic distribution of health, disease and death.
    5. Military Geography : geographic distribution of military facilities and troops
    6. Political Geography : geography of a particular region influences its political structure
    7. Agricultural and Rural Geography : study of agriculture and rural settlement
    8. Urban Geography : the location, structure, development, and growth of cities

    Physical Geography

    It deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment.Various fields of human geography are :

    • Geomorphology : study the landforms of the planet, from their development to their disappearance.
    • Hydrology : deals with the amounts and quality of water moving and accumulating on the land surface and in the soils and rocks.
    • Glaciology : study of glaciers and ice sheets.
    • Biogeography : study of relationships of organisms with their environment.
    • Climatology : study of the climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a long period of time.
    • Pedology : study of soils in their natural environment.
    • Coastal geography : study of the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land.
    • Oceanography : deals with Earth’s oceans and seas.
    • Geomatics : deals with gathering, storing, processing, and delivering of geographic information.
    • Environmental geography : is a branch of geography that analyzes the spatial aspects of interactions between humans and the natural world.



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