Eastern Rift mountains
Great Dividing Range
- Hills are lower than mountains but are higher than their surrounding areas.
- A number of hills together form a ‘range of hills’.
- It may be formed by a buildup of rock debris or sand deposited by glaciers and wind or may be created by faults.
- The climate in the hills is more pleasant than the climate in high snow covered mountains. It is usually neither too hot nor too cold.
- Hill made by people is called a mound.
- Valleys are the low-lying areas between two mountains or hills.
- When rivers flow down the mountainsides and hillsides, it wears off the rocks and soil. Over a period of time, the water carves out v- shaped grooves. These grooves get deeper and wider, finally forming low land areas called valleys.
- Valleys formed by glaciers are U- shaped valleys.
- Valleys formed due to the effect of erosion are V – shaped valleys.
- The valleys formed (that is V shaped or U shaped), depend upon the rate at which deepening and widening takes place.
- Narrow valleys are called canyons.
- A plateau is a flat topped highland with steep sides. Since it looks like a table, it is also called a tableland. They are basically areas of high flat land. Plateaus are usually surrounded by steep rock faces called cliffs.
- Intermontane plateau is surrounded by mountains on all sides. g. the Tibetan plateau, the Bolivian plateau
- Piedmont plateau has a mountain on one side. g. the Malwa plateau in India, the Patagonian plateau in Argentina
- Continental plateau is surrounded by oceans or plains. g. plateaus of western Australia and Africa
- Dissected plateaus are highly eroded plateaus cut by rivers and broken by deep narrow valleys. g. plateaus of south-western USA.
- The Deccan Plateau in India is good for growing cotton because of the black soil present.