SOILS IN INDIA

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In India, various types of soils are found and their formations are influenced by certain factors such as altitude, climate disproportionate rainfall and many others. The major types of soils found in India are:

 

Soil type

Occurrence States

Compositions

Crops Grow

Alluvial Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh Bihar, Jharkhand Rich in potash and lime, but deficient in nitrogen and phosphoric acid Large variety of Rabi and Kharif crops such as wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton and jute
Black Deccan Plateau, Valleys of Krishna and Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu Rich in iron, lime, aluminum, magnesium, calcium, but lacks in nitrogen, phosphorus and humus. Cotton, sugarcane, jowar, tobacco,

wheat, rice

Red Eastern parts of Deccan Plateau, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Odisha and Meghalaya Rich in iron and potash, but deficient in lime, nitrogen phosphorus and humus Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane and

Pulses

Laterite Summits of Eastern and Western Ghats, Assam hills, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal and Odisha Rich in iron but poor in silica, lime, phosphorus, potash and humus Tea, coffee, rubber, cashew and millets
Desert West and North-West India, Rajasthan, North Gujarat and Southern Punjab. Rich in soluble salts, but deficient in organic matter.

rich enough in phosphate though poor in nitrogen

lime, millets, barley, cotton, maize and pulses (with irrigation)
Mountain Hills of Jammu and Kashmir

Uttarakhand and Assam hills

Rich in iron and humus, but deficient in lime tea, fruits and medicinal plants  (with fertilizers)
Saline and Alkaline Drier parts of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Maharashtra Many salts such as sodium, magnesium and calcium Unfit for agriculture
Peaty and Marshy Kerala, coastal regions of Odisha,

Tamil Nadu and Sundarbans of West Bengal

Contain large amount of soluble salts and organic matter, but lack in potash and phosphates Rice and jute
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