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In India, various types of soils are found and their formations are influenced by certain factors such as altitude, climate disproportionate rainfall and many others. The major types of soils found in India are:

 

Soil type

Occurrence States

Compositions

Crops Grow

AlluvialPunjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh Bihar, JharkhandRich in potash and lime, but deficient in nitrogen and phosphoric acidLarge variety of Rabi and Kharif crops such as wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton and jute
BlackDeccan Plateau, Valleys of Krishna and Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil NaduRich in iron, lime, aluminum, magnesium, calcium, but lacks in nitrogen, phosphorus and humus.Cotton, sugarcane, jowar, tobacco,

wheat, rice

RedEastern parts of Deccan Plateau, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Odisha and MeghalayaRich in iron and potash, but deficient in lime, nitrogen phosphorus and humusWheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane and

Pulses

LateriteSummits of Eastern and Western Ghats, Assam hills, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal and OdishaRich in iron but poor in silica, lime, phosphorus, potash and humusTea, coffee, rubber, cashew and millets
DesertWest and North-West India, Rajasthan, North Gujarat and Southern Punjab.Rich in soluble salts, but deficient in organic matter.

rich enough in phosphate though poor in nitrogen

lime, millets, barley, cotton, maize and pulses (with irrigation)
MountainHills of Jammu and Kashmir

Uttarakhand and Assam hills

Rich in iron and humus, but deficient in limetea, fruits and medicinal plants  (with fertilizers)
Saline and AlkalineDrier parts of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and MaharashtraMany salts such as sodium, magnesium and calciumUnfit for agriculture
Peaty and MarshyKerala, coastal regions of Odisha,

Tamil Nadu and Sundarbans of West Bengal

Contain large amount of soluble salts and organic matter, but lack in potash and phosphatesRice and jute