Introduction to Indian Polity – Part 3 | Indian polity history for ssc cgl | Indian polity for upsc

■ This act came into picture when the Indian National Congress became very active during the 1st World war and launched the ‘Home Rule’ movement.
■ This is also called Montagu – Chelmsford reforms.
■ Chelmsford was the then Viceroy.
■ Montague was the then Secretary of state.
■ On August 20, 1917 the British Government made a declaration that the policy of His Majesty’s Government is that of increasing association of Indians in every branch of administration and the gradual development of self-governing of institutions with a view to progressive realization of responsible government in British India as an integral part of the British empire.
■ Montagu-Chelmsford were entrusted with the responsibility of formulating proposals for the said policy and the GOI Act, 1919 gave a formal shape to the same.
■ The report of Montague-Chelmsford led to the enactment of GOI of 1919.
■ The GOI Act 1919 introduced diarchy or dual government.
■ The diarchy was introduced at the provinces and not at the centre.
■ This act demarcated the central and provincial subjects.
■ The provincial subjects were further divided into transferred subjects and reserved subjects.
■ Transferred subjects are those subjects that are administered by the Governor with the aid of ministers and responsible to the Legislative Council in which the proportion of elected members was raised to 70 percent.
■ Hence, the foundation of responsible government was introduced in the narrow sphere in the form of transferred subjects.
■ The reserved subjects on the other hand were to be administered by the Governor and his executive council without any responsibility to the Legislature.
■ The source of revenue was also divided into 2 categories, so that the provinces could run the administration with the aid of revenue raised by the provinces by themselves.
■ Provincial budget was separated from the Central budget.
■ The control of the Governor-General over provinces was retained by empowering the Governor to reserve the bill for the consideration of the Governor-General.
■ Through the GOI Act of 1919 bicameralism (two houses i.e. Upper and Lower House) was introduced at the centre.
■ The Upper House was called Council of state composed of 60 members of whom 34 were elected.
■ The lower House was called Legislative Assembly composed of 144 members of whom 104 were elected.
■ The powers of both the Upper and Lower Houses were equal except that the power to vote supply (budget) was given only to the Lower House.
■ The concept of elections was introduced.
■ The Indian Legislative council consists of the Upper House (Council of State) and the Lower house (Legislative Assembly).
■ The majority of the members from both the houses are elected directly.
■ The act of 1919 extended communal representation for Sikhs, Indian Christians, Europeans and Anglo-Indians.
■ This act provided for the establishment of Public Service Commission.
■ Accordingly the Public Service Commission was set up for recruiting Civil Servants.
■ The act of 1919 also provided for the separation of provincial budget from the central Budget. (Province means a smaller area, just like a present day state. Today we have 2 budgets in the country, central and state budgets, this started with the 1919 Act and even after the commencement of the Constitution we continued with the same).
■ The 1919 reforms failed to fulfill the aspirations of the people in India and this led to “Swaraj” or “Self-government” agitation under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.
■ In the year 1927 a statutory commission was appointed under the chairmanship of Simon to inquire into and report on the working of the 1919 Act.


■ The Simon Commission was appointed by the British Government in November 1927.
■ This was a 7 member Commission.
■ The Chairman of the Commission was Sir John Simon.
■ The purpose of the commission was to report on the condition of India under the new constitution (GOI 1919).
■ All the members of the committee were British.
■ Hence all the parties boycotted the Commission.
■ The Simon Commission submitted the report in the year 1930.
■ The Simon Commission recommended for the abolition of diarchy.
■ This commission also recommended for the continuation of communal electorate.
■ The British government convened three round table conferences to consider the proposals of Simon Commission.
■ The conferences to be attended by the representatives of British Government, British India and Indian princely states. (Regarding the round table conferenceswe learn more during the study of National Movement).
■ The three rounds table conferences held between 1930 and 1932.
■ Mahatma Gandhi attended the second round table conference only.
■ On the basis of these discussions a white paper on constitutional reforms was prepared and the same was submitted to the Parliament.
■ The recommendations were incorporated in the GOI Act of 1935.


■ On August 4, 1932 the communal award was announced by Ramsay MacDonald (The then British Prime Minister).
■ This is meant for providing extending separate electorate to Scheduled Castes.
■ In fact the concept of separate electorate for depresses classes was raised by Dr. B.R.Ambedkar.
■ The proposal was accepted by the British and announced the Communal award.
■ Gandhi opposed this on the grounds that this proposal would disintegrate the Hindu society.
■ Mahatma Gandhi began indefinite hunger strike in Yeravada jail (Pune, Maharashtra) against the separate electorate for Scheduled Castes.

Current affairs updates for November 1st Week , 2017 – General Awareness GK for IBPS, SBI, SSC Exams


1. SIDBI revamps portal for easy credit access

Wider loan options created for MSMEs


Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) has revamped its portalwww.udyamimitra.inwith enhanced features to provide easy access to credit and hand-holding services for micro small medium enterprises (MSME).
SIDBI said in a statement “The portal brings transparency and competition among lenders and removes the need to approach several banks individually”

2. LIC may participate in bank recapitalisation programme

Govt. has multiple options for recap bonds.


State-owned Life Insurance Corporation may be roped in to participate in the Rs 2.11 lakh crore recapitalisation initiative for public sector banks (PSBs).
Sources said “As part of the programme, LIC could also increase its stake in various PSBs which are required to raise Rs 58,000 crore from the capital market.”

3. SBI extends ₹2,317 crore for rooftop solar projects

Lender had availed World Bank line of credit of $625 mn


State Bank of India (SBI) has sanctioned loans worth ₹2,317 crore to rooftop solar power projects for an aggregate capacity of 575 MW to a host of corporate entities including the Adani Group, JSW Energy, Tata Renewable Energy among others.
The World Bank had sanctioned the line of credit to SBI in September. This will be available for five years.

4. Jaitley-led panel to oversee PSBs’ merger

Goyal, Sitharaman are also members


Moving ahead with reforms in the public sector banking space, the government has constituted a Ministerial panel headed by Finance Minister Arun Jaitley that will oversee merger proposals of state-owned banks.
The other members of the panel include Railways and Coal Minister Piyush Goyal and Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman.

5. New avatar BHIM app misses October date

‘Upgrade’ pushes roll-out by a month


The Centre’s plan to unveil a new version of its flagship digital payment application BHIM (Bharat Interface for Money) as a single interface point for all mobile payments seems to have hit a roadblock, with its proposed roll-out being pushed back by at least a month.

6. Crypto currencies, ICOs under SEBI lens

examining means to deal with coin offerings


SEBI examining whether regulation possible under current laws or fresh powers needed
The rising popularity of crypto currencies and the increasing number of entities looking at raising funds through Initial Coin Offerings (ICO) has caught the attention of the capital market regulator, which is evaluating whether such instruments and offerings can be brought under its regulatory purview.

7. The biggest ever fire sale of Indian corporate assets

to tide over bad loans crisis


‘For sale’ tags on airports, roads, ports, steel plants, cement units, refineries, corporate park, among others, are visible and is effectively India Inc.’s biggest ever fire sale. It’s even bigger than the government’s planned divestment target.
The Reserve Bank of India’s (RBI) has decided to clean up the balance sheets of Indian banks, which are collectively saddled with Rs five lakh crore of bad loans, by the end of this fiscal. So, the banks have started cracking the whip on Indian companies for repayment of loans. For most affected firms and groups, this will mean they will be forced to sell prized assets to repay their ballooning debts.


8. SEBI tweaks block deal norms

Least order size is now Rs. 10 cr.


Markets regulator SEBI on Thursday revised the framework for ‘block deals’ by providing two separate trading windows of 15 minutes each and increasing the minimum order size to Rs. 10 crore, such deals are usually negotiated before their execution.
The move is aimed at ensuring confidentiality of the large trades and stable prices for such transactions.

9. NHAI eyes bond issue to finance highway projects

Policies will generate investment interest


Road Transport and Highways Minister,Nitin Gadkari said, the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) will soon issue bonds to finance highway projects.
Mr. Gadkari had said in a press conference on Wednesday that NHAI has a AAA rating that would help it tap into the capital markets. He had said that funds to the tune of Rs. 4-5 lakh crore can be raised from the markets for highway projects.

10. ‘India has to spend Rs. 50 lakh cr on infra’

Such expenditure needs expeditious resolution of stressed loan problem: Crisil


Rating agency Crisil said India would need to spend about Rs. 50 lakh crore between fiscal 2018 and 2022 to build its infrastructure in a sustainable manner.
Ashu Suyash, MD and CEO, Crisil Ltd. while unveiling the agency’s Infrastructure Yearbook 2017 said “India will see close to Rs. 3,000 crore investment per day in infrastructure sector, and 56% more than the Rs. 37 lakh crore projected spend between fiscals 2013 and 2017.”

11. L&T scouts for ‘launchpads’ in Gujarat, T.N., for missile plant

setup based on incentives offered by the States


A senior executive said Larsen & Toubro Ltd., is eyeing Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Gujarat for its Rs. 500 crore missile and missile systems plant.
The missile and missile systems plant is being formed in a joint venture with MBDA, a French company. The new joint venture company, L&T MBDA Missile Systems Ltd., will have an equity stake of 51:49.

12. Non-finance business to drive growth of Peerless Group

New hotels, medical college on anvil


Non-finance business is set to drive the future growth of the 85-year old Peerless General Finance & Investment Company Ltd. which has, over the years, marked its footprint in sectors such as hotels, hospitals and housing through wholly-owned subsidiaries and joint ventures.
PGF&I is the flagship venture of the Peerless Group which has in its fold a clutch of financial services companies and housing, hotel and hospital ventures.

13. Enabler for MSMEs eyes 21% growth

NSIC seeks more equity funding from Centre


The National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC), a government enterprise that facilitates information, credit, technology and marketing for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), is looking at business to the tune of Rs. 24,000 crore this year.

14. India moves up 30 spots in WB’s ease of business ranking

fifth highest change in DTF score


India climbed 30 positions in the latest ease of doing business ranking by the World Bank, in its Doing Business 2018 report released on Tuesday. The report ranks India at 100 among 190 countries. Last year, India was ranked 130.
Rita Ramalho of WB said “Nation made big efforts in last 3 years and what is seen in this report is not last year’s reforms only”


15. Defence Minister takes note of key shortfalls in Navy

Commends the force for its ‘high operational tempo’


Commending the Navy on maintaining continuous deployment of ships, submarines and aircraft in India’s areas of interest in the last one year, Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman took note of the critical capability shortfalls that the service is facing in various platforms.
She made these comments while addressing the on-going biannual Naval Commanders Conference.

16. Army finalises plan to modernise weapons

Rs. 40,000 crore shopping list ready


The Army has finalised one of its biggest procurement plans for infantry modernisation, under which a large number of light machine guns (LMGs), battle carbines and assault rifles are being purchased at a cost of nearly Rs. 40,000 crore to replace its ageing and obsolete weapons.


17. RCEP summit: India under pressure to cut tariffs further

Mega trade deal


Prime Minister Narendra Modi is likely to participate in the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Summit in Manila later in November where the country will face more pressure to improve its commitments for eliminating tariffs in goods and agree to an early conclusion of the mega trade deal.


18. British Minister allays Indian investors’ concerns

It will be business as usual despite Brexit


Indian businesses with investments in Britain would see that it was business as usual, Britain’s Minister for Asia Mark Field said, as he sought to offer reassurances to investors and others looking to the U.K. market amid the uncertainty of Brexit.

19. India, Sri Lanka ink housing project deal

Move comes weeks after protests by Rajapaksa supporters


Weeks after pro-Rajapaksa protesters clashed with the police outside the Indian consulate in Hambantota, Sri Lanka signed an agreement with India to build 1,200 houses in a public ceremony held in the southern port city.
The signing of the MoU in Hambantota amid assumes significance not only in its timing, but also in taking India’s housing project to the Sinhala-majority Southern Province.

20. Act or we will, U.S. tells Pakistan

Blunt message


The Trump administration has firmly told Pakistan that if it fails to take “decisive” action against terror groups, it will “adjust” its tactics and strategies to achieve the objective in a “different way.”
Secretary of State Rex Tillerson has told Pakistan that it must take action against terrorist groups and dismantle their safe havens on its soil.

21. India, France to boost defence ties

ramp up cooperation on platforms


India and France has decided to expand military cooperation in the strategically key Indo-Pacific region, besides resolving to ramp up the overall defence and security ties.
Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman and her French counterpart, Florence Parly, held extensive talks covering a variety of issues, including the regional security situation, joint development of defence platforms and expansion of military-to-military ties.

22. EU, Washington throw their weight behind Madrid

Spanish shares and bonds are sold off


The motion was passed in the Catalan Parliament after a passionate debate from advocates and opponents of independence said Catalonia constituted an independent, sovereign and social democratic state.
Within an hour, the upper house of Spain’s Parliament in Madrid authorised Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy’s government to rule Catalonia directly — an unprecedented move in Spain since the return of democracy in the late 1970s.

23. ‘A win-win framework needed’

Expansion of trade ties


There can be a ‘win-win’ framework for resolving lingering trade issues between the U.S. and India, said Nisha Biswal, the newly appointed president of the U.S.-India Business Council (USIBC). Ms. Biswal said she would draw from her experience as a former Assistant Secretary of State for such an approach.

24. Iran fulfilling nuclear deal commitments: IAEA chief

No President can revoke an international deal, says Rouhani


Iran is fulfilling its commitments under the nuclear deal with world powers and U.N. inspectors are facing no problems in their verification efforts, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) director-general said on Monday.
U.S. President Donald Trump said earlier this month that he would not continue to certify the multinational 2015 agreement, reached under his predecessor Barack Obama, and warned that he might ultimately terminate it.

25. Moon Jae-in says cannot recognise North Korea as nuclear state

Govt will continue working for peace on the peninsula.


South Korea will never recognise or tolerate North Korea as a nuclear state, nor will Seoul have nuclear weapons, the South’s President Moon Jae-in said on Wednesday, while China said it would work with Seoul to denuclearise the Korean peninsula.
Mr. Moon also said there can be no military action on the Korean peninsula without the South’s consent, adding the government will continue working for peace on the peninsula.

26. Eight killed by New York motorist in ‘cowardly act of terror’

Attacker from Uzbekistan


A man in a rented pickup truck drove onto a busy bicycle path near the World Trade Centre memorial on Tuesday, killing at least eight people and injuring several others in what the mayor called “a particularly cowardly act of terror.”
Authorities said the driver was shot in the abdomen by police after jumping out of the truck with what turned out to be a fake gun in each hand and shouting what witnesses said was “Allahu Akbar,” Arabic for “God is great”

27. 200 die at N. Korean n-test site

Experts have warned


More than 200 people are feared to have died when a tunnel caved in at North Korea’s nuclear test site, triggered by its latest detonation, a Japanese news report said on Tuesday.
A tunnel collapsed at Punggye-ri early in September, days after North Korea conducted its sixth and largest underground nuclear test on September 3, TV Asahi said, quoting unnamed North Korean sources. Some 100 workers were killed in the initial collapse.

28. Gender inequality widening after decade of progress: WEF

situation varies greatly in different countries and regions


WEF said in a report that a decade of slow progress towards better parity between the sexes has screeched to a halt, the World Economic Forum (WEF) said today, warning the global gender gap was now widening. But the global trend now seems to have made a U-turn, especially in workplaces, where full gender equality is not expected to materialise until 2234.


29. Govt. working on tougher consumer protection law

Laws existed even in Vedic period against unfair trade, says PM


Prime Minister Narendra Modi said a new consumer protection law is on the anvil to crack down on misleading advertisements and simplify the grievance redressal mechanism.
He was speaking at the inauguration of a two-day international conference on Consumer Protection for East, South, Southeast and Asian nations.

 30. ‘Don’t deny food items for lack of Aadhaar’

Centre issues instruction to all States


The Centre has instructed the States not to deny PDS benefits to any person who does not have Aadhaar or has not linked the ration card to the 12-digit biometric identifier, and warned them of strict action for violations. It also asked the States not to delete eligible households from the list of beneficiaries for non-possession of Aadhaar.

31. SC questions Centre on judicial posts

Amicus curiae appointed


Over a year and 10 months after a Constitution Bench placed its faith in the government to iron out the dos and don’ts of judicial appointments to the Supreme Court and the high courts, the Centre is yet to deliver. Now, the court wants to know why.
A Bench of Justices A.K. Goel and U.U. Lalit issued notice to the Attorney-General of India, the Centre’s top law officer, to explain why the finalisation of the Memorandum of Procedure (MoP) for appointment of judges to the Supreme Court and the high courts continues to “linger”.

32. Air programme on dangers of Blue Whale game, SC tells DD

telecast it on prime time


Declaring the Blue Whale online game a threat to life, the Supreme Court directed public broadcaster Doordarshan to conceive a cautionary and educational programme about the dangers of the online game which goads players, mostly students, to commit suicide.
A Bench, led by Chief Justice of India Dipak Misra, gave the public broadcaster a week’s time to prepare the programme and air it on prime time for an appropriate duration, possibly not less than 10 minutes.

33. Flexi-fares may go for 50% of seats on trains

Flat hike likely


The Railways may soon revise its flexi-fare system on premium trains such as Rajdhani, Shatabdi and Duronto to get more passengers.
A top Railway Ministry official said that “the Railway Board is considering selling half the seats without any surge pricing. The problem with the present dynamic pricing, introduced on September 9, 2016, is that the fares rise soon after the first 10% of the tickets on a train are sold”

34. Kabul will get Indian wheat via Chabahar

Chabahar port will soon be fully operational


The move also indicates that Chabahar, which India has been developing for some years, will soon be fully operational. India had earlier sent goods through the Iranian port of Bandar Abbas in 2003 as Pakistan had not eased land access to Afghanistan.
The MEA said “The two foreign ministers welcomed the fact that this is the first shipment that would be going to Afghanistan through the Chabahar port after the Trilateral Agreement on Establishment of International Transport and Transit Corridor was signed during the visit of the Prime Minister of India to Iran in May 2016”

35. Still verifying returned high-value notes: RBI

99% returned


The RBI said at least 66 Sophisticated Currency Verification and Processing (CVPS) machines were being used for counting the junked notes that were deposited with various banks post-demonetisation.
The notes deposited or collected are being verified by the central bank at its offices to establish the total number of currency bills returned and to weed out fakes.

36. India is a messenger of world peace, says PM

participated in about 50 out of 71 UN peacekeeping operations


Prime Minister Narendra Modi said India has always vouched for world peace, unity and harmony and its armed forces have contributed in this direction through UN missions across the globe.
He said that currently around 7,000 Indian security personnel are deployed on peacekeeping missions, making it the third highest contributor.

37. 70 Indian words added to Oxford dictionary

“identified as distinctive to Indian English“


From endearing words like ‘Abba’ and ’Anna’ to Indian delicacies like ‘gulab jamun’ and ‘vada’ can now be found in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED).
As per the latest list of inclusions, 70 new Indian words from Telugu, Urdu, Tamil, Hindi and Gujarati languages have been added to the dictionary.

38. Supreme Court rebukes Mamata govt

Let Mamata come and file a petition as a citizen


The Supreme Court pulled up the State of West Bengal for directly approaching the apex court against the Centre’s move to make Aadhaar mandatory for availing the benefits of various social welfare schemes.
The State had filed a writ petition under Article 32 of the Constitution. The specific Article can only be used by individuals to approach the Supreme Court against state actions which violate their fundamental rights. Article 32 cannot be agitated by a State against the Centre.

39. Education loans counted in credit ratings, says govt.

No exemption possible


The government has clarified that education loan defaults cannot be kept out of the ambit of credit rating bureaus such as the Credit Information Bureau of India (CIBIL). The government’s response was in reply to a question posed by DMK MP Tiruchi Siva.

40. Fewer TB deaths in India: WHO

Rise in cases


Death from tuberculosis in India saw a 12% decline from last year even as the number of new cases saw a 5% increase, according to a report from the World Health Organisation (WHO)
Sunil Khaparde, who leads India’s tuberculosis-control programme, said the rise in cases was due to greater surveillance and the dip in mortality from 480,000 to 423,000 in 2016, due to improved drug management.

41. Army to build new bridge at Mumbai railway station

Defence Minister visits site of September tragedy


Maharashtra Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis, as he visited the site of the stampede, along with Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman and Railway Minister Piyush Goyal said “The Army will help build a new foot overbridge at the Elphinstone Road station in Mumbai by January 31”
The tragedy which took place on September 29 killed 23 people.Mr. Fadnavis told the media that the Army would also build two more foot overbridges at Curry Road and Ambivli railway stations.

42. SC relief for self-employed, salaried road accident victims

Constitution Bench fixes guidelines for computing claims


A five-judge Constitution Bench spelt relief to families who were given a raw deal by insurance companies just because their loved one was either self-employed or salaried at the time of death in a road accident.
So far, the pre-liberalisation Motor Vehicles Act of 1988 had computed motor accident claims on the basis that self-employed persons and the salaried have no “future prospects”, and if alive, their income over the years would hardly have seen any drastic improvements.

43. Bullet train route is loss-making: RTI

40% seats went vacant in past 3 months


As the Narendra Modi government proceeds with the Mumbai-Ahmedabad bullet train project, an RTI query has revealed that over 40% of seats on all the trains on this sector go vacant, causing huge losses to Western Railway.
According to Right to Information replies received by Mumbai activist Anil Galgali, just in the past one quarter, the Western Railway’s losses on this sector stood at nearly ₹30 crore, or around ₹10 crore per month.

44. Speed up trial of politicians, says SC

Asks Centre to frame scheme by Dec. 13


The Supreme Court has asked the government to frame a central scheme for setting up special courts across the country to exclusively try criminal cases involving ‘political persons.’
In a determined effort to cleanse politics of criminality and corruption, the apex court said it takes years, probably decades, to complete the trial against a politician.

45. India mulls national e-commerce policy

study obligations in a sector like e-commerce, which was still evolving.


A senior government official said India is considering drafting a comprehensive national e-commerce policy to develop an ecosystem that would support exports and protect consumer interests.
Sudhanshu Pandey, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Commerce and Industry said “However, the country is of the view that starting negotiations on World Trade Organisation (WTO) rules in e-commerce would be premature at this stage as it was still unclear how they would benefit developing nations, including their companies and consumers”

46. NPS-private sector: Entry age limit raised to 65 years

to reap the benefits of NPS and plan for a regular income.


Pension regulator PFRDA has increased the maximum age of joining NPS-private sector to 65 years from 60 years at present.
With this move, any Indian citizen, resident or non-resident, of 60-65 years of age can also join National Pension System (NPS) and continue up to the age of 70 years.

47. Housing and Urban Affairs Ministry, UrbanClap tie up for job generation

Employment of those being skilled in high-demand services


The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs and UrbanClap, a private online service aggregator, signed a memorandum of understanding, to provide employment opportunities for the urban poor who have been skilled under the Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM).
The MoU signed in presence of Hardeep Singh Puri, Minister of Housing and Urban Affairs (Independent Charge), will be effective for five years.

48. Cabinet approves MoU between India, Armenia

Cooperation and mutual assistance in customs matters


The Cabinet has given its approval for signing and ratifying an Agreement between India and Armenia on cooperation and mutual assistance in customs matters.
The Agreement would provide a legal framework for sharing of information and intelligence between the Customs authorities of the two countries and help in the proper application of Customs laws, prevention and investigation of Customs offences and the facilitation of legitimate trade.


49. Scientists link new virus to kala-azar

Could help develop new treatment regime


Researchers have stumbled upon tantalizing evidence of an unknown virus that may be responsible for the persistence of kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis, a parasite infection that has spawned epidemics and sickened thousands of Indians for over a century.
It’s still early to pointedly blame the virus but its discovery portends a new kind of treatment regime and may aid attempts to eradicating the disease.

50. CO2 levels grew at record pace in 2016: UN

Last time co2 levels reached 400 ppm was 3-5 million years ago.


The amount of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere grew at record rate in 2016 to a level not seen for millions of years, potentially fuelling a 20-metre rise in sea levels and adding 3 degrees to temperatures, the United Nations said on Monday.
The UN World Meteorological Organization said in its annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin that the atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), the main man-made greehouse gas, hit 403.3 parts per million (ppm), up from 400.0 in 2015.

51. IIT Madras develops extremely water-repellent coating

Superior durability


Nanocellulose-based liquid dispersion that renders the coated surface extremely water repellent — superhydrophobic with water contact angle more than 160 degrees — has been developed by a team of researchers led by Prof. T. Pradeep from the Department of Chemistry at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras.
The material can be coated on a variety of surfaces including glass and paper. It has several distinct properties such as high mechanical durability and chemical stability.

52. IIT KGP-Arka Renewable Plan Solar E-charging Station On Commercial Scale

250 kilowatt-hour capacity,capable of e-charging upto 500 cars a day


IIT Kharagpur and Arka Renewables Energy College have submitted a plan to the Department of Science and Technology for setting up solar e-vehicles charging station on a commercial scale in the state.
Arka Renewable Energy College chief S P Gonchaudhuri said on the sidelines of an interactive session with BNCCI that the project will be the first one in the country on this scale.

53. Experimental vaccine may protect against HIV

stimulates immune response against ‘sugar shield’ of virus


Scientists have developed a novel vaccine candidate that may prevent HIV infection by stimulating an immune response against sugars that form a protective shield around the virus.
Researchers designed a vaccine candidate using an HIV protein fragment linked to a sugar group. When injected into rabbits, the vaccine candidate stimulated antibody responses against the sugar shield in four different HIV strains.


54. Kohli ahead of Messi in Forbes List

Kohli’s career graph has been on a rise


Virat Kohli, Indian cricket team captain, has been ranked above the Argentinean and Barcelona football legend Lionel Messi as one of the most valuable brands among sports athletes by Forbes.
According to Forbes, Kohli is ranked seventh in the list released by Forbes ahead of Messi, who is at ninth. Between Kohli and Messi is the Irish golfer Rory McIlroy. Kohli is placed at seventh with a brand value of $14.5 million, compared to Messi’s $13.5 million.

55. Sangram, Amanpreet win medals

50m free pistol gave India their first individual medal


It took a world record to beat the Indian challenge in double trap as Hu Binyuan of China clinched the gold, beating qualification topper Sangram Dahiya 79-76, in the World Cup Final at the Dr. Karni Singh Range.
After Amanpreet Singh grabbed the men’s free pistol bronze there was a lot of hope on the three Indians in double trap.

56. BCCI unlikely to cave in to NADA pressure



The BCCI brass will soon have a meeting to chalk out a plan to deal with mounting pressure from the National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA) that wants Virat Kohli and Co under its ambit.
There is a Committee of Administrators (COA) meeting in Mumbai on November 3, where the issue will come up for discussion but, as of now, the Indian cricket’s governing body is unlikely to budge from its current stand.

 57. Virat Kohli claims back ICC top spot, While Mithali Raj rises to top spot

Day for Champions


Indian captain Virat Kohli returned to the top of the ICC ODI rankings for batsmen after logging career-high rating points, going past the iconic Sachin Tendulkar in the process. Kohli has moved back to the top within 10 days of losing it.
While Indian Women’s team captain Mithali Raj moved up one place to occupy the number one spot in the latest ICC ODI rankings for batswomen. Mithali has 753 points, while Perry and Satterthwaite are on 725 and 720 points respectively.

58. India beat NZ by 53 runs in first T20I

India’s first win against the Kiwis in six T20 outings


India finally tasted success against the team that has been their Achilles heel for long in this format when they outplayed butter-fingered New Zealand by 53 runs in the first Twenty20 International here tonight.
At the end of the lopsided game that was also veteran seamer Ashish Nehra’s last in competitive cricket, hosts India sauntered to a 1-0 lead in the three-match series.


59. On visit to Taj, Yogi calls it a ‘gem’ of India

Monument is a part of culture and should be protected, he says


Taking a dig at political opponents over his maiden visit to the Taj Mahal, Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath on Thursday said only those who had “divided the society into camps of caste” had an objection to his tour of Agra.
In Agra, Mr. Adityanath was addressing a public meeting moments after he made his maiden visit to the Taj Mahal, which has been shrouded in controversy after some provocative and dismissive remarks by BJP legislators and the State government’s omission of it from a tourism-development booklet.

60. ‘Right to privacy verdict affirms Hadiya’s rights too’

SC stand will be crucial for women’s lives


Speakers at an event to discuss the right to privacy judgment said that “The Supreme Court’s recent judgment dealing with the right to privacy further affirms Hadiya’s right as an adult to choose her own religion and husband, and the verdict by the Kerala High Court in her case could cause tremendous damage to women’s rights.”

Current affairs updates for November 08th, 2017 – General Awareness GK for IBPS, SBI, SSC Exams

1. NCR relocates to new R&D centre in Hyderabad

first largest R&D facility outside its headquarters in Atlanta.


NCR Corporation, a global leader in omni-channel solutions, today launched its new state-of-the-art research and development (R&D) centre.
It said “this modern R&D centre will help extend NCR’s leadership in omni-channel solutions and to create innovative products and platforms for channel transformation and digital enablement.

2. India-New Zealand DTAA: Third Protocol notified

help curb tax evasion and tax avoidance


India has notified the third Protocol amending the existing double taxation avoidance convention (DTAC) with New Zealand.
This Protocol — which was signed by both countries on October 26, 2016 — provides for a revamped framework of exchange of tax related information in line with international standards. This will help curb tax evasion and tax avoidance between the two countries and will also enable mutual assistance in collection of taxes.

3. Chennai to host ATP Challenger tournament in February

will benefit Indian players to improve their ranking


Tamil Nadu Tennis Association (TNTA) will conduct the Chennai Open Challenger Tennis Tournament 2018, an ATP Challenger event here from February 12 to 18, February 2018.
A press note from TNTA said “The tournament will be held at the SDAT Tennis Stadium at Nungambakkam”. The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) and All India Tennis Association (AITA) have approved the event, it added.

4. India clinches six-run win in an eight-over shoot out

first ever Twenty20 series victory over NZ


India clinched a six-run win in the third game to notch up its first-ever Twenty20 series victory over New Zealand in front of a sell-out crowd at the Sports Hub.
The final encounter of the three-match series for the Paytm Trophy — limited to eight overs a side following a three-hour delay owing to rain — was a nerve-wracking affair.

5. Fintech sector gains currency as country goes on less-cash drive

Choices galore


Demonetisation gave the much needed impetus to the fintech sector, paving the way for a cashless economy.
The resulting cash crunch not only helped boost digital transactions but also brought transparency and accountability into financial transactions. Banks too witnessed a surge in their CASA (current and saving accounts) and digital transactions.

6. Earth will turn into fireball by 2600: Hawking

boldly go where no one has gone before


British physicist Stephen Hawking has warned that the human race will perish on Earth as growing population and massive power consumption would turn the planet into a sizzling fireball in less than 600 years.
Hawking said “to ensure the survival of our species for another million years, humans must “boldly go where no one has gone before”

7. UNSC asks Myanmar to end military campaign in Rakhine state

unhindered access to provide humanitarian assistance


Stepping up pressure on Myanmar, the UN Security Council has come out with a unanimous statement asking it to end the military campaign in Rakhine state and ensure the safe return of Muslim Rohingya refugees driven from their homes.
The 15-member powerful wing of the UN also demanded safe, unhindered access for its agencies and their partners to provide humanitarian assistance. Britain and France dropped a push for the Security Council to adopt a resolution on the situation to appease council veto power China, a supporter of Myanmar’s former ruling junta.

8. Banks’ dilemma: High on funds, but low on notes

It was a packed year for the banking industry


Over the past year, bank lending rates came down almost 100 basis points, term deposit rates declined by up to 75 basis points, the usually sticky savings bank deposit rate came off 50 basis points and digital transactions soared.
Normally, these developments would have unfolded over a couple of years. But all this happened double-quick after the Modi government announced that specified bank notes (SBNs) — ₹500 and ₹1,000 — would no longer be legal tender.

9. Banks should harness power of customer data available: Report

banks have more data per unit of revenue than any other industry


A study by Boston Consulting Group notes “Banks, no doubt, have large amounts of data on their customers. And this “data” is one “brahma-astra” that can unleash unprecedented value for Indian banks, as it reveals the full financial genomre of the customer — be it an individual or a corporate. Banks should, therefore, leverage this (data) to their advantage”
The report titled “Hidden Treasure: How data can turn the fortunes for Indian Banks” argues that using data in every component of the banking business model could cumulatively add Rs. 3 lakh crore to the bottom line over the next five years.

10. VAT on petrol and diesel: State to take decision after PwC report

It accounts for major chunk of revenue to Commercial Taxes Department


The State government is likely to take a couple of weeks more to take a decision on the demand to slash the additional Rs. 4 VAT on petrol and diesel.
The government has appointed the PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) as consultant to study the implications of reduction in VAT on petroleum products.

Current affairs updates for November 07th, 2017 – General Awareness GK for IBPS, SBI, SSC Exams

1. Centre plans to set up more commercial courts

Crucial to go further up in Ease of Doing Business ranking


Days after India jumped 30 positions in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business ranking, Law Ministry officials said the Union government proposed to establish commercial courts in districts to further improve the parameters.
An official of the Law Ministry familiar with the process said Legal remedy to commercial disputes and enforcement of business contracts are parameters of the World Bank ranking. In terms of ease of enforcing contracts, India jumped from 172 to 164. “Though the jump in the ranking sounds small, it is substantial given the diversities of laws in our country and the complex demography”

2. Note ban: firms put, drew Rs. 17,000 cr.

SFIO gets more powers to tackle crime angle


The government said more than Rs. 17,000 crore was deposited and withdrawn post-demonetisation, by 35,000 companies.
The Corporate Affairs Ministry said in a statement that to address the criminal angle, the Director, Additional Director or Assistant Director of the Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO) had been authorised to arrest any person believed to be guilty of any fraud punishable under the Companies Act.

3. PSU banks may get Rs. 70,000 cr. via recap bonds in four months

Funding is part of Centre’s Rs. 2.11 lakh cr. recapitalisation plan


Sources said The Finance Ministry may infuse about Rs. 70,000 crore through recapitalisation bonds in the NPA-hit public sector banks (PSBs) in the next four months.
Last month, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley had announced a Rs. 2.11 lakh crore two-year road map for strengthening public sector banks. The plan included re-capitalisation bonds of Rs. 1.35 lakh crore.

4. Securing N. Korea’s arms will require invasion

Pentagon responds to Congressmen


The Washington Post reported on Saturday, citing a letter from Pentagon officials sent to U.S. lawmakers “the only certain way to locate and secure all North Korea’s nuclear weapons sites would be via a U.S. ground invasion.”
It said the letter, reportedly written by the vice director of the Pentagon’s Joint Staff, noted that such a conflict could prompt Pyongyang to deploy chemical weapons.

5. Pet coke ban to render 25 lakh workers in NCR jobless: Assocham

move aimed at curbing pollution in the region


Assocham said the Supreme Court’s decision to ban distribution, sale and use of furnace oil and pet coke in the national capital region will render over 25 lakh workers jobless.
Assocham said in a statement “The industries are already under tremendous stress after the implementation of GST and the ban on use of pet coke will prove to be the final nail in the coffin. Over 25 lakh workers will be rendered jobless in Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Gurugram (formerly Gurgaon), Panipat, Sonipat and Noida alone.”

6. Chennai to get flood warning system

forecasts taking into account all parameters


Chennai, which of late has been experiencing urban flooding often, is all set to get a comprehensive flood warning system being developed by several national agencies and institutions.
The project is being implemented under the supervision of a high powered committee led by former Secretary of Ministry of Earth Sciences, Shailesh Nayak. The initiative was taken by Office of Principal Scientific Advisor after the devastating floods the city experienced on 2015.

7. New device may help reduce neonatal mortality

Device monitors the baby’s body temperature


India had a neonatal mortality rate of 25.4 per 1,000 livebirthlast year. In other words, an average of little more than 25 children out of 1,000 live births died within 28 days of their births. It is significantly more than the global average of 19 per 1,000 live births recorded last year.
The solution addresses the issue of hypothermia, which is one of the major causes of neonatal deaths.

8. HDFC Bank makes RTGS, NEFT online transactions free from Nov 1

applicable across all retail savings, salary and non-resident customers


Private lender HDFC Bank has made online transactions through RTGS and NEFT free of cost from November 1, with an aim to promote a digital economy.
On the other hand, various charges for cheque-related transactions as well as request for additional leaves will get costly from early next month for non-managed savings and salary accounts.

9. India’s effort in renewable energy led to drop in solar price: US

solar power is cheaper than coal without subsidy


US lawmakers have been told “India’s massive effort towards renewable energy has resulted in considerable drop in solar price and the country now believes that the solar power is cheaper than coal without subsidy.”
Influential Senator Jeff Merkley said during a Congressional hearing last week “I was really struck by just the transition in this single year between April and June, driven I think by decisions in India related to that dropping price”

10. Banks’ revenue pools set to change significantly in five years: BCG study

Revenues from corporate segment to shrink


A Boston Consulting Group study notes that with retail loan growth touching its limits, the challenge for banks is expected to be acute from NBFCs, considering that the latter have made significant inroads in retail lending in the last three years.
The report titled ‘Hidden Treasure – How Data can turn the fortunes for Indian Banks’ reveals that over the last five years there has been an estimated 16 per cent growth in disbursement and over 30 per cent annual growth in loan enquiries.

Current affairs updates for November 06th, 2017 – General Awareness GK for IBPS, SBI, SSC Exams

1. Banks in Bihar to get ranks for giving loans

Govt. transactions to be based on this


Bihar Deputy Chief Minister Sushil Kumar Modi, who also holds charge of the Finance and Commercial Taxes department, said “The [State] government will neither deposit its money nor carry out any transaction with banks that have been hesitant in giving loans [to beneficiaries]. It would formulate parameters on which banks would be ranked and be given grading

2. Hyderabad traffic management system wins award

commended in ‘Best Intelligent Transport System’ category


H-TRIMS, the traffic management initiative of Hyderabad, has been chosen for the Best Commendable Initiative award by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
H-TRIMS was introduced in 2012 to provide a round-the-clock remotely controlled signalling service for 221 junctions. H-TRIMS also enables automatic adjustment of signal timings based on traffic flows, pedestrian controlled signals and SMS-based alerts to the citizens.

3. Unlocking US-India trade potential

bilateral trade has expanded again


The two-day ‘Unlocking US-India Trade Potential’ trade conference will be held in Bengaluru on November 7 and 8.
According to a press release, while bilateral trade between the US and India is five times what it was a decade ago, tremendous potential for growth remains.
The conference will bring together representatives from American, Indian, and international businesses with trade experts, enabling conversation and collaboration among key stakeholders, thought leaders, and policymakers.

4. Still wary of ‘Trump Effect’

UN climate talks open in Bonn


Confronted with a cascade of grim reports on the gathering pace of global warming, climate negotiators meet in Bonn wondering to what extent US President Donald Trump will make their jobs more difficult.
Five months after the world’s most famous climate sceptic said he would yank the US out of the 196-nation Paris Agreement, the diplomats and leaders tasked with implementing it remained both defiant and concerned.

5. 26 dead in Texas church shooting

gunman identified


A man wearing all black and a ballistic vest opened fire outside a small Baptist church in a tiny town in Texas, killing at least 26 people and injuring 20 others in the country’s most recent mass horror.
Governor of Texas, Greg Abbott, confirmed the toll, which has steadily increased throughout the day after the shooting at the First Baptist Church of Sutherland Springs.

6. Digital transactions shoot up post demonetisation

seen as an exciting time for fintech.


Digital payment companies have seen a substantial jump in their business as a result of the government’s measures towards promoting cashless transactions post demonetisation last year.
These firms are likely to further consolidate their business with more incentives for digital transactions.

7. Bank recap plan shouldn’t dent economy

Financial engineering needed


The Finance Ministry may have to do some tough financial engineering to ensure that the latest ₹2.11-lakh crore recapitalisation plan for public sector banks does not further strain the country’s economy at a time when there are concerns over growth slowdown.

8. Easier credit to food processing industry can help farmers, says Goyal

innovative financing does not mean just getting a subsidy


Minister for Railways and Coal Piyush Goyal said “Easier bank credit to the food processing industry could in turn lead to better livelihood to farmers and doubling of their income”
Addressing a session on ‘Innovative Financing’ at World Food India, the Minister said the categorisation of the food processing sector for bank credit should be reviewed as it could in turn help double farmers’ income.

9. GSTN introduces refund provision for exporters

shipping bill is considered to be an application for refund


Calculator with the word tax written in wooden block letters

The GST Network has introduced Table 6A in Form GSTR1 that would allow exporters to claim refunds for Integrated GST.
The GSTN said “An exporter can claim refund of IGST tax paid at the time of export by filling the details of shipping bill and tax paid GST invoice in his Form GSTR1 in the relevant month.”

10. More than two lakh companies de-registered so far: MCA

National Financial Reporting Authority to be set up soon


The Centre has till date de-registered as many as 2.24 lakh companies for remaining inactive and not filing financial statements for two years or more.
The Corporate Affairs Ministry (MCA) said on Sunday, Separately, around 3.09 lakh directors on the board of companies that failed to file financial statements and/ or annual returns for a continuous period of three financial years during 2013-14 to 2015-16 have been disqualified.

Current affairs updates for November 04th, 2017 – General Awareness GK for IBPS, SBI, SSC Exams

1. 34 power projects among loan defaulters

Panel finds it fishy


The Finance Ministry has failed to give a list of 34 power projects that defaulted on bank loans totalling crores of rupees to a parliamentary panel on Energy.
Earlier on two occasions, the Reserve Bank of India had refused to divulge the names of the loan defaulters.

2. SC wants norms fixed for distance education courses

Restrains deemed-to-be universities


Questioning the role of the University Grants Commission (UGC) in checking the commercialisation of education, the Supreme Court on Friday restrained deemed-to-be universities from conducting distance education in any course unless all the courses were approved by the statutory authorities.

3. DRDO successfully tests guided bomb

Designated as the Smart Anti-Airfield Weapon (SAAW)


The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has successfully tested an indigenously developed light weight glide bomb, Smart Anti Airfield Weapon (SAAW), which can target large enemy infrastructure, like airfields.
The Defence Ministry said in a statement “The guided bomb released from an Indian Air Force (IAF) aircraft and guided through precision navigation system, reached the targets at greater than 70 km range with high accuracies.”

4. Govt may make gold jewellery hallmarking mandatory by January

Hallmarking for three categories 14,18 and 22 carat.


Food and Consumers Affairs Minister Ram Vilas Paswan said “The government is planning to make hallmarking along with carat count mandatory for the gold jewellery sold in the country at present people don’t get to know quality of gold jewellery that they buy. We are planning to make hallmark for gold jewellery mandatory. It should be done by January.”

5. Private sector must invest more in contract farming: PM

opportunity for global super-market chains


Prime Minister Narendra Modi asked the private sector to invest more in contract farming, raw material-sourcing and creating agri-linkages, and said there are huge opportunities for global super-market chains considering India as a major outsourcing hub.
Besides, he suggested that aerated drinks manufacturers consider blending 5% fruit juice in their products, and said such a procedure has major potential since fruit-juice based drinks are an intrinsic part of Indian food habits.

6. FASTag mandatory for new cars from Dec. 1

To ensure no leakage of toll revenue


Come December 1 and it will be mandatory for all new four-wheelers to have FASTag devices fixed on the front windscreens by automobile manufacturers or authorised dealers.
A FASTag is a device that employs radio frequency identification (RFID) technology for making toll payments directly from the prepaid or savings account linked to it.

7. India’s first black buck conservation reserve

Safe haven


Uttar Pradesh cabinet decided to make India’s first conservation reserve for black buck in Allahabad’s Meja.
Among the five major decisions taken in the cabinet meeting, the black buck conservation reserve in Meja Forest Division of Allahabad is seen as the most important one.It is believed that the decision taken for protection of black deer will also help in wooing tourists.

8. RBI asks corporate borrowers to obtain Identifier’ code

conceived as a key risk-management measure


The Reserve Bank of India asked banks to advise their existing large corporate borrowers having total exposures of ₹50 crore and above to obtain Legal Entity Identifier (LEI) code as per the schedule prescribed by it.
The RBI warned that borrowers who do not obtain LEI, which is a 20-digit unique code to identify parties to financial transactions worldwide, as per the schedule, are not to be granted renewal/enhancement of credit facilities.

9. Five Indians among Forbes’s ‘The World’s Most Powerful Women’ 2017 list

ICICI Bank’s Chanda Kochhar highest-ranked Indian


The Indian women on the 14th edition of the annual rankings include ICICI Bank’s MD & CEO Chanda Kochhar (ranked 32); Roshni Nadar Malhotra, executive director and CEO of HCL Enterprise; Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw (64), Chairman and MD of Biocon; Shobhana Bhartia (92), Chairperson and Editorial Director, HT Media Ltd and Bollywood actress Priyanka Chopra at rank 97.

10. Our foreign policy geared around national security and prosperity

Building bridges


Union Minister of State for External Affairs MJ Akbar said India’s foreign policy is geared around two fundamental objectives of national security and prosperity. The economic partnerships and relationships that the country is building are clearly the most important inter-connectivity bridges”